Login | Users Online: 258  
Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size   
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us
 


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-63 Table of Contents     

Atrial fibrillation post cardiac surgery trends toward management


Department of Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar

Date of Web Publication26-Nov-2010

Correspondence Address:
Awad A.R. Alqahtani
Department of Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Hamad Medical Corporation, P.O. Box 3050, Doha
Qatar
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-705X.73212

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Post operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is more common than before due to increased numbers of cardiac surgeries. This in turn is associated with increased incidence of post operative complication, length of hospital stay and subsequent increase the cost of hospitalization. Therefore preventing and/or minimizing atrial fibrillation by pharmacological or nonpharmacological means is a reasonable goal. POAF has also been associated with postoperative delirium and neurocognitive decline. The precise pathophysiology of POAF is unknown, however most of the evidence suggests it is multifactorial. Different risk factors have been reported, and many studies have evaluated the prophylactic effects of different interventions. This review article highlights the incidence, risk factors, and pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment strategies of POAF.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, cardiac surgery, antiarrhythmia


How to cite this article:
Alqahtani AA. Atrial fibrillation post cardiac surgery trends toward management. Heart Views 2010;11:57-63

How to cite this URL:
Alqahtani AA. Atrial fibrillation post cardiac surgery trends toward management. Heart Views [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Apr 20];11:57-63. Available from: http://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2010/11/2/57/73212


   Introduction Top


Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation (POAF) is more common than before due to the increased number of cardiac surgeries. This in turn is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and subsequent increase in the cost of hospitalization. Therefore, preventing and / or minimizing atrial fibrillation by pharmacological or non-pharmacological means is a reasonable goal. [1],[2]

Postoperative atrial fibrillation has also been associated with postoperative delirium and neurocognitive decline. [3],[4] The precise pathophysiology of POAF is unknown, however, most of the evidence suggests that it is multifactorial. Different risk factors have been reported, and many studies have evaluated the prophylactic effects of different interventions. This review article highlights the incidence, risk factors, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment strategies of POAF.


   The Extent of the Problem Top


The true incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery is unclear. Reported incidences range from 10 - 65%. This range is wide, because studies that examined Atrial Fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) differ in baseline patient characteristics, type of surgery, methods of detection, and definitions of AF. [5] Overall, it is estimated that the incidence of POAF is approximately 30% after pure CABG surgery, 40% following valve replacements or repair, and increases to approximately 50% after combined CABG / valvular procedures. It is expected that the incidence will rise in the future, as the population going for cardiac surgery is getting older and the incidence of AF in general is age-dependent. POAF tends to occur within two to four days after the procedure, with the peak incidence on the second postoperative day. Of the patients who experienced an arrhythmia, 70% developed it before the end of the fourth postoperative day and 94% before the end of the sixth postoperative day. [6] Furthermore, POAF was estimated to prolong hospital stay by almost 4.9 days, and hence, the cost of POAF on hospital resources was significant. [6]


   The Risk Factors for POAF Top


Numerous studies have identified risk factors associated with the development of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery. [7] Risk factors such as older age, previous history of AF, male gender, decreased left-ventricular ejection fraction, valvular heart surgery, left-atrial enlargement, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatic heart disease are associated with development of atrial fibrillation [Figure 1]. [1],[3],[7],[8],[9]
Figure 1 :POAF pathogenesis

Click here to view



   The Mechanisms of POAF Top


Atrial fibrillation is attributed to enhanced automaticity in one or several rapidly depolarizing foci and re-entry involving one or more circuits. [10] Its development is likely to be multifactorial and has not yet been fully identified. A proposed mechanism like pericardial inflammation, autonomic imbalance during the postoperative period, excessive production of catecholamines, and a fluid shift with resultant changes in volume and pressure, are all attributed to the development of POAF [Figure 1]. [11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18]

Some studies indicated that patients with postoperative AF could have pre-existing electrophysiological disturbances. [19],[20] Mariscalco et al, [21] suggested a link between atrial histopathology before the surgical procedure and postoperative AF. The abnormalities found include: cytoplasmatic vacuolization, interstitial fibrosis, and nuclear derangement of myocytes. These findings supported the hypothesis that postoperative atial fibrillation occurred in the presence of AF vulnerability (triggers) and the ability to maintain AF (substrate) was associated with pre-existing degenerative changes. Moreover, multiple re-entry wavelets resulting from the dispersion of atrial refractoriness seemed to be the electrophysiological mechanism of POAF. Another mechanism such as neurohormonal activation increased the susceptibility to POAF. [4] Increased sympathetic and parasympathetic activation altered atrial refractoriness (e.g., shortening of the atrial effective refractory period), possibly contributing to the arrhythmia substrate. [16]

Some studies suggest that patients with RR interval variability are at risk of developing POAF. These findings suggest that interventions that alter both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems may be beneficial in suppressing this postoperative arrhythmia. In addition, there are supporting studies revealing that underlying inflammation plays an important factor in the pathogenesis of POAF. [11],[12] Supporting this hypothesis is the finding that extracorporeal circulation contains systemic inflammatory mediators that may be responsible for the development of POAF. Some studies have reported that an elevated white cell count, which is usually seen in the days following cardiopulmonary bypass, is an independent predictor for the occurrence of POAF. [13],[14] Other studies have revealed that early occurrence of POAF is linked to an increased inflammatory response, post cardiac surgery. [22],[23],[24] Inflammation, inhomogeneity of atrial conduction, and incidence of POAF are significantly decreased by anti-inflammatory treatment with prednisone. [11] Surgical trauma to the atria is associated with an increased incidence of POAF, which explains why patients undergoing valvular surgery have the highest risk of developing POAF. [1,8] Some studies suggest that less manipulation of the atria decreases atrial inflammation, and subsequently, AF. [25]


   Do We Need to Treat POAF? Top


Considering that POAF is associated with a higher incidence of heart failure, stroke, prolonged hospital stay, and increased costs, it is justifiable to treat it. In a retrospective study, the Texas Heart Institute of Cardiovascular Research database was used to identify patients who developed POAF. AF was diagnosed in 16% (n = 994) of the population (n = 6475) and was associated with greater in-hospital mortality, more strokes, and prolonged hospital stays.


   Modalities for Prevention of POAF Top


Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent or decrease the high incidence of POAF. In 2006, the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association (AHA), and the European Society of Cardiology [Table 1]. [26],[27] jointly published a guideline for the prevention and management of POAF.
Table 1 :Indications for intervention in AF post cardiac surgery according to the ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines

Click here to view


Beta-blockers

Beta-blockers have been the most studied drugs to date, for the prevention of POAF. These drugs are primary in AF prevention and should be used routinely in every patient. [28],[29] Several clinical trials have evaluated the effect of various beta-blockers on the incidence of POAF, [30],[31],[32] and the results indicate an overall reduction of this complication. However, it should be noted that even in recent large trials where this strategy has been widely applied, the incidence of POAF remains nearly 60% in selected patients. This in turn supports the need for further preventive strategies in addition to beta-blockade. Sotalol is a beta-blocker that has important class III antiarrhythmic effects and has also been effective in the prevention of POAF, both when compared with placebo [33] and with other beta blockers, to elucidate the specific class III action. [34],[35] However, the side effects of sotalol, such as hypotension and bradycardia, and in particular, its proarrhythmic effects, has limited its use in perioperative management.

Amiodarone

Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythimic drug that also has beta and alpha adrenergic-blocking properties. It plays a role in controlling the sympathetic overstimulation seen in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A short perioperative course of oral amiodarone added to a routine beta-blockade has proved to be a very promising approach of management. This combination therapy was associated with a 50% lower incidence of postoperative atrial tachyarrhythmia in patients undergoing valve replacement / repair and /or CABG. In a large prospective trial, the Prophylactic Oral Amiodarone for the Prevention of Arrhythmias that Begin Early After Revascularization, Valve Replacement, or Repair (PAPABEAR), the number needed to treat was only 7.5, to prevent one patient from developing POAF. [36] The result of the PAPABEAR trial were consistent with the pooled results of a meta-analysis of 19 trials comparing amiodarone with placebo. [37] In these 19 trials, AF was reduced by 50% in the amiodarone group (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.59; P < 0.0001); Furthermore, there was also a significant reduction in ventricular tachyarrhythmia, strokes, and hospital stay. The authors concluded that in the absence of a contraindication, prophylactic amiodarone should be implemented as a routine therapy for high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. [37]

Atrial pacing

There are three mechanisms by which atrial pacing decreases and / or prevents AF:

  • Avoiding the trigger for AF by suppressing atrial premature beats
  • Reduction of bradycardia-induced dispersion of atrial depolarization that contributes to the electrophysiological substrate for AF
  • Using dual atrial pacing, such mechanisms minimize and / or prevent the development of intra- atrial entry, and hence, AF. Meta-analyses, [38],[39],[40] demonstrated a promising outcome on using single- or dual-site atrial pacing, which reduces the risk of new-onset POAF. However, the number of patients participating in these studies was small, and the protocol used for the pacing sites varied widely among these studies.



   Other Medications Top


Calcium-channel blockers

Numerous studies have evaluated the nondihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker. The finding shows that calcium-channel blockers reduce the risk of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. However, some studies that suggested using this drug preoperatively found an increased incidence of atrioventricular (AV) block and low-output syndrome, which was attributed to the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of this medication. Therefore, the use of these agents should be considered with caution until more information on their safety profile become available.

Statins

Several studies point out that statins reduce inflammation in patients with coronary artery disease. Observational studies have previously suggested that patients on statin therapy have a lower incidence of POAF after CABG. [41]

The prospective, randomized study, Atorvastatin for Reduction of MYocardial Dysrhythmia After cardiac surgery (ARMYDA-3) [42] demonstrated that treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg/day), started seven days before elective cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass and continued in the postoperative period, reduced the occurrence of POAF by 61%.

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Experimental studies in rats and dogs showed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have significant antiarrhythmic effects on the atrial muscle. [43],[44] Furthermore, in a 12-year follow-up study from the general population; consumption of fish that induces high plasma concentrations of PUFA has been associated with a lower incidence of AF. [45]

A randomized trial by Calo et al, [46] showed that in 160 patients who underwent elective CABG, PUFA supplementation significantly lowered the incidence of POAF. The effect was similar to that seen when using beta-blockers, sotalol or amiodarone.

Anti-inflammatory agents

Corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory properties; hence it has been studied for the treatment of POAF. Clinical trials in the past have shown significant reduction in the incidence of POAF in those patients who received steroid compared to controls. There is an increase in inflammatory mediators postoperatively, which predisposes the development of POAF in susceptible patients. A multicenter trial, [47] consisting of 241 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery, was randomized to receive either 100 mg hydrocortisone or placebo. The incidence of POAF during the first 84 hours was significantly lower in the hydrocortisone group (36 of 120; 30%) than in the placebo group (58 of 121; 48%), and the adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) was 0.54 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.83; P = 0.004).

Magnesium

A meta-analysis by Miller et al, [48] suggested that giving a magnesium supplement was effective for reducing POAF. Its efficacy in reducing AF was similar to that obtained from common antiarrhythmic drugs. However, the small numbers of patients used in these studies, and the design variability of the studies, limited the interpretation of these study results and their clinical application.

N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant agent that minimizes cellular oxidative damage. [49],[50] It has also been shown that NAC may reduce reperfusion arrhythmias, ischemia / reperfusion injury, [51] and / or extension of infarction. The use of NAC with reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction has also been associated with less oxidative stress and better preservation of left ventricular function. [52] NAC has also shown beneficial effects in chronic pulmonary disease, [49] which is considered another risk factor for POAF. A study published in the European Heart Journal two years ago. [50] suggested the potential benefits of using NAC perioperatively and its continued infusion for 48 hours postoperatively, to reduce the incidence of POAF.


   Treatment of POAF Top


Although POAF is transient and self-limiting, treatment is indicated for patients who are hemodynamically unstable, and who develop cardiac ischemia or heart failure. The current treatment includes control of ventricular rate, and restoring / maintaining sinus rhythm in addition to prevention of thromboembolism.

Rhythm control

Most of the recent evidence suggests that rhythm control is better than rate control.

The reason being that rhythm control maintains the patients in sinus rhythm, with decreasedlength of hospital stay. [53] Different agents may beeffective in converting AF to sinus rhythm [Table 2], includingamiodarone, [54] procainamide, [55] ibutilide, [56] and sotalol. [57]In one study, [56] ibutilide was more effective thanplacebo for the treatment of POAF, but polymorphicventricular tachycardia was reported, which was attributed to electrolyteimbalance. In the postoperative period, the beta blockingaction of sotalol was particularly effective inreducing the ventricular rate and its proarrhythmic toxicity was relatively infrequent, but this agent seemed less effective than the others for inducing cardioversion of AF.
Table 2 :Drugs used for rhythm control in atrial fibrillation

Click here to view


Electrical cardioversion

If POAF results in acute heart failure, myocardial ischemia or hemodynamic instability urgent electrical cardioversion should be performed. It should also be considered electively to restore sinus rhythm after the first onset of AF, if the pharmacologic trial has failed to resume a sinus rhythm.

Rate control

The postoperative recovery period is characterized by increased autonomic nervous system activity and adrenergic stress, and this in turn makes it difficult to control the ventricular rate in patients with POAF. Beta blockers are the therapy of choice, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease; however, beta blockers are relatively contraindicated or poorly tolerated in patients known to have asthma or Bronchospasms, acute decompensated heart failure, or high-grade atrioventricular (AV) conduction block. Alternatively, other AV nodal blocking agents can be tried instead. Their dosages and side effects are presented in [Table 3].
Table 3 :Drugs used for rate control in atrial fibrillation

Click here to view


Thromboembolism prevention

Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of perioperative strokes, [58],[59] but this may be reduced by therapeutic anticoagulation. In contrast, anticoagulation in the postoperative period may increase the risk of bleeding or cardiac tamponade. [60] No controlled trials have specifically evaluated the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy for new-onset POAF, which often resolves spontaneously after four to six weeks. Generally, anticoagulation is instituted for prolonged (> 48 hours) and / or frequent POAF episodes. The American College of Chest Physicians recommends the use of anticoagulation therapy, particularly for high-risk patients, such as those with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, in whom AF develops after surgery. In these patients, it is also recommended to continue anticoagulation therapy for a further 30 days after return to normal sinus rhythm. [60]


   Conclusion Top


Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. The frequency of this arrhythmia is increasing, most likely due to the increasing number of elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

Currently, there are significant variations in the prevention strategies for POAF, with varied supportive evidence. The most recent evidence suggests that beta-blockers are effective, safe, and can be used in most patients. Therefore, unless contraindicated, beta-blockers should be continued perioperatively or initiated in all patients. In addition, amiodarone, statins, N-3 PUFAs, or NAC, may be used with beta-blocker as an adjunctive therapy. Such a combination therapy has been shown to be beneficial in reducing POAF.

 
   References Top

1.Creswell LL, Schuessler RB, Rosenbloom M, Cox JL. Hazards of postoperative atrial arrhythmias. Ann Thorac Surg 1993;56:539-49.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Andrews TC, Reimold SC, Berlin JA, Antman EM. Prevention of supraventricular arrhythmias after coronary artery bypass surgery. A meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Circulation 1991;84:III236-44.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Mathew JP, Fontes ML, Tudor IC, Ramsay J, Duke P, Mazer CD, et al. A multicenter risk index for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. JAMA 2004;291:1720-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Allessie MA, Boyden PA, Camm AJ, Klιber AG, Lab MJ, Legato MJ, et al. Pathophysiology and prevention of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2001;103:769-77.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Maisel WH, Rawn J, Stevenson WG. Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:1061-73.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Aranki SF, Shaw DP, Adams DH, Rizzo RJ, Couper GS, VanderVliet M, et al. Predictors of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery surgery. Current trends and impact on hospital resources. Circulation 1996;94:390-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Almassi GH, Schowalter T, Nicolosi AC, Aggarwal A, Moritz TE, Henderson WG, Tarazi R, et al. Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A major morbid event? Ann Surg 1997;226:501-11.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Mathew JP, Parks R, Savino JS, Friedman AS, Koch C, Mangano DT, et al. Atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Predictors, outcomes, and resource utilization. MultiCenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. JAMA 1996;276:300-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Banach M, Rysz J, Drozdz JA, Okonski P, Misztal M, Barylski M, et al. Risk factors of atrial fibrillation. following coronary artery bypass grafting: A preliminary report. Circ J 2006;70:438-41.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Fuster V, Rydιn LE, Asinger RW, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Frye RL, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC Guidelines for the Management of patients with atrial fibrillation: Executive summary. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines and Policy Conferences (Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation): Developed in collaboration with the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:1231-66.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Levy MN. Sympathetic-parasympathetic interactions in the heart. Circ Res 1971;29:437-45.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ishii Y, Schuessler RB, Gaynor SL, Yamada K, Fu AS, Boineau JP, et al. Inflammation of atrium after cardiac surgery is associated with inhomogeneity of atrial conduction and atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2005;111:2881-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Tselentakis EV, Woodford E, Chandy J, Gaudette GR, Saltman AE. Inflammation effects on the electrical properties of atrial tissue and inducibility of postoperative atrial fibrillation. J Surg Res 2006;135:68-75.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Abdelhadi RH, Gurm HS, VanWagoner DR, Chung MK. Relation of an exaggerated rise in white blood cells after coronary bypass or cardiac valve surgery to development of atrial fibrillation postoperatively. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1176-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Lamm G, Auer J, Weber T, Berent R, Ng C, Eber B. Post-operative white blood cell count predicts atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006;20:51-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Spach MS, Dolber PC, Heidlage JF. Influence of the passive anisotropic properties on directional differences in propagation following modification of the sodium conductance in human atrial muscle. A model of reentry based on anisotropic discontinuous propagation. Circ Res 1988;62:811-32.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Wang TJ, Parise H, Levy D, D'Agostino RB Sr, Wolf PA, Vasan RS, et al. Obesity and the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation. JAMA 2004;292:2471-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Echahidi N, Pibarot P, O'Hara G, Mathieu P. Mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:793-801.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Ad N, Snir E, Vidne BA, Golomb E. Potential preoperative markers for the risk of developing atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1999;11:308-13.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Ak K, Akgun S, Tecimer T, Isbir CS, Civelek A, Tekeli A, et al. Determination of histopathologic risk factors for postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;79:1970-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Mariscalco G, Engstrφm KG, Ferrarese S, Cozzi G, Bruno VD, Sessa F, et al. Relationship between atrial histopathology and atrial fibrillation after coronary bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006;131:1364-72.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Bruins P, te Velthuis H, Yazdanbakhsh AP, Jansen PG, van Hardevelt FW, de Beaumont EM, et al. Activation of the complement system during and after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: Postsurgery activation involves C-reactive protein and is associated with postoperative arrhythmia. Circulation 1997;96:3542-8.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Chung MK, Martin DO, Sprecher D, Wazni O, Kanderian A, Carnes CA, et al. C-reactive protein elevation in patients with atrial arrhythmias: Inflammatory mechanisms and persistence of atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2001;104:2886-91.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Aviles RJ, Martin DO, Apperson-Hansen C, Houghtaling PL, Rautaharju P, Kronmal RA, et al. Inflammation as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2003;108:3006-10.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Stamou SC, Dangas G, Hill PC, Pfister AJ, Dullum MK, Boyce SW, et al. Atrial fibrillation after beating heart surgery. Am J Cardiol 2000;86:64-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-An Update 2007. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.uster V, Rydιn LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation-executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation). J Am CollCardiol 2006;48:854-906.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Lamb RK, Prabhakar G, Thorpe JA, Smith S, Norton R, Dyde JA. The use of atenolol in the prevention of supraventricular arrhythmias following coronary artery surgery. Eur Heart J 1988;9:32-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Matangi MF, Strickland J, Garbe GJ, Habib N, Basu AK, Burgess JJ, et al. Atenolol for the prevention of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass grafting. Can J Cardiol 1989;5:229-34.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Connolly SJ, Cybulsky I, Lamy A, Roberts RS, O'brien B, Carroll S, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial of prophylactic metoprolol for reduction of hospital length of stay after heart surgery: The beta-Blocker Length Of Stay (BLOS) study. AmHeart J 2003;145:226-32.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Coleman CI, Perkerson KA, Gillespie EL, Kluger J, Gallagher R, Horowitz S, et al. Impact of prophylactic postoperative beta-blockade on post-cardiothoracic surgery length of stay and atrial fibrillation. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:2012-6.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Ferguson TB Jr, Coombs LP, Peterson ED. Preoperative betablocker use and mortality and morbidity following CABG surgery in North America. JAMA 2002;287:2221-7.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Pfisterer ME, Klφter-Weber UC, Huber M, Osswald S, Buser PT, Skarvan K, et al. Prevention of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after open heart operation by low-dose sotalol: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;64:1113-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.Sanjuαn R, Blasco M, Carbonell N, Jordα A, Nϊρez J, Martνnez-Leσn J, et al. Preoperative use of sotalol vs atenolol for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2004;77:838-43.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Parikka H, Toivonen L, Heikkila L, Virtanen K, Jarvinen A. Comparison of sotalol and metoprolol in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;31:67-73.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Mitchell LB, Exner DV, Wyse DG, Connolly CJ, Prystai GD, Bayes AJ, et al. Prophylactic oral amiodarone for the prevention of arrhythmias that begin early after revascularization, valve replacement, or repair (PAPABEAR): A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294:3093-100.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Bagshaw SM, Galbraith PD, Mitchell LB, Sauve R, Exner DV, Ghali WA. Prophylactic amiodarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis. Ann Thorac Surg 2006;82:1927-37.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Burgess DC, Kilborn MJ, Keech AC. Interventions for prevention of post-operative atrial fibrillation and its complications after cardiac surgery: A metaanalysis. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2846-57.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Crystal E, Connolly SJ, Sleik K, Ginger TJ, Yusuf S. Interventions on prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery: A meta-analysis. Circulation 2002;106:75-80.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Daoud EG, Snow R, Hummel JD, Kalbfleisch SJ, Weiss R, Augostini R. Temporary atrialepicardial pacing as prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation after heart surgery: A meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2003;14:127-32.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Marνn F, Pascual DA, Roldαn V, Arribas JM, Ahumada M, Tornel PL, et al. Statins and postoperative risk of atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol 2006;97:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Patti G, Chello M, Candura D, Pasceri V, D'Ambrosio A, Covino E, et al. Randomized trial of atorvastatin for reduction of post-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Results of the ARMYDA-3 (Atorvastatin for Reduction of Myocardial Dysrhythmia After cardiac surgery) study. Circulation 2006;114:1455-61.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Jahangiri A, Leifert WR, Patten GS, Mc Murchie EJ. Termination of asynchronous contractile activity in rat atrialmyocytes by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mol Cell Biochem 2000;206:33-41.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Sarrazin JF, Comeau G, Daleau P, Kingma J, Plante I, Fournier D, et al. Reduced incidence of vagally-induced atrial fibrillation and expression levels of connexins by N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dogs. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:1505-12.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Mozaffarian D, Psaty BM, Rimm EB, Lemaitre RN, Burke GL, Lyles MF, et al. Fish intake and risk of incident atrial fibrillation. Circulation 2004;110:368-73.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Calς L, Bianconi L, Colivicchi F, Lamberti F, Loricchio ML, de Ruvo E et al. N-3 Fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1723-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Halonen J, Halonen P, Jδrvinen O, Taskinen P, Auvinen T, Tarkka M, et al. Corticosteroids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007;297:1562-7.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Miller S, Crystal E, Garfinkle M, Lau C, Lashevsky I, Connolly SJ. Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis. Heart 2005;91:618-23.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Arfsten D, Johnson E, Thitoff A, Jung A, Wilfong E, Lohrke S, et al. Impact of 30-day oral dosing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine on Sprague-Dawley rat physiology. Int J Toxicol 2004;23:239-47.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Ozaydin M, Peker O, Erdogan D, Kapan S, Turker Y, Varol E, et al. N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study, Eur Heart J 2008;29:625-31.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Orhan G, Yapici N, Yuksel M, Sargin M, Senay S, Yalηin AS, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in bypass surgery. Heart Vessels 2006;21:42-7.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Sajkowska A, Wykretowicz A, Szczepanik A, Kempa M, Minczykowski A, Wysocki H. Fibrinolytic therapy and N-acetylocysteine in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction: Its influence on authentic plasma hydroperoxide levels and polymorphonuclear neutrophil oxygen metabolism. Cardiology 1999;91:60-5.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Lee JK, Klein GJ, Krahn AD, Yee R, Zarnke K, Simpson C, et al. Rate-control versus conversion strategy in post-operative atrial fibrillation: Trial design and pilot study results. Card Electrophysiol Rev 2003;7:178-84.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Daoud EG, Strickberger SA, Man KC, Goyal R, Deeb GM, Bolling SF, et al. Preoperative amiodarone as prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation after heart surgery. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1785-91.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Kowey PR, Taylor JE, Rials SJ, Marinchak RA. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of prophylactic drug therapy in preventing supraventricular arrhythmia early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:963-5.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.VanderLugt JT, Mattioni T, Denker S, Torchiana D, Ahern T, Wakefield LK, et al. Efficacy and safety of ibutilide fumarate for the conversion of atrial arrhythmias after cardiac surgery. Circulation 1999;100:369-75.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Gomes JA, Ip J, Santoni-Rugiu F, Mehta D, Ergin A, Lansman S, et al. Oral d, l sotalol reduces the incidence of post-operative atrial fibrillation in coronary artery bypass surgery patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34:334-9.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Bucerius J, Gummert JF, Borger MA, Walther T, Doll N, Onnasch JF, et al. Stroke after cardiac surgery: A risk factor analysis of 16,184 consecutive adult patients. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;75:472-8.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Hogue CW Jr, Murphy SF, Schechtman KB, Davila-Roman VG. Risk factors for early or delayed stroke after cardiac surgery. Circulation 1999;100:642-7.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Meurin P, Weber H, Renaud N, Larrazet F, Tabet JY, Demolis P, et al. Evolution of the post-operative pericardial effusion after day 15. the problem of the late tamponade. Chest 2004;125:2182-7.  Back to cited text no. 60
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 A retrospective study on atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at The National Heart Institute, Kuala Lumpur
Ahmad Farouk Musa,Chou Zhao Quan,Low Zheng Xin,Trived Soni,Jeswant Dillon,Yuen Kah Hay,Rusli Bin Nordin
F1000Research. 2018; 7: 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Potential Therapeutic Role in Cardiovascular System Disorders—A Review
Ewa Sokola-Wysoczanska,Tomasz Wysoczanski,Jolanta Wagner,Katarzyna Czyz,Robert Bodkowski,Stanislaw Lochynski,Bozena Patkowska-Sokola
Nutrients. 2018; 10(10): 1561
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 A retrospective study on atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at The National Heart Institute, Kuala Lumpur
Ahmad Farouk Musa,Chao Zhao Quan,Low Zheng Xin,Trived Soni,Dillon Jeswant,Yuen Kah Hay,Rusli Nordin
F1000Research. 2018; 7: 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Atorvastatin Prevents Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation for Patients undergoing Cardiac Surgery
Chen Sai,Jiang Li,Xiao Yingbin,Ma Ruiyan
Hellenic Journal of Cardiology. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Perioperative Inotrope Therapy and Atrial Fibrillation Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Evidence of a Racial Disparity
Jimmy T. Efird,Andy C. Kiser,Patricia B. Crane,Hope Landrine,Linda C. Kindell,Margaret-Ann Nelson,Charulata Jindal,Daniel F. Sarpong,William F. Griffin,T. Bruce Ferguson,W. Randolph Chitwood,Stephen W. Davies,Alan P. Kypson,Preeti Gudimella,Ethan J. Anderson
Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Prophylactic Amidarone Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Joanne Thanavaro,John Taylor,Mary S. Guignon,Linda Vitt
The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2017; 13(6): 433
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Design, Challenges, and Implications of Quality Improvement Projects Using the Electronic Medical Record
Joseph E. Ebinger,Brandon R. Porten,Craig E. Strauss,Ross F. Garberich,Christopher Han,Sharon K. Wahl,Benjamin C. Sun,Raed H. Abdelhadi,Timothy D. Henry
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2016; 9(5): 593
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Vitamin C for the Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis
Evangelos Polymeropoulos,Pantelis Bagos,Maria Papadimitriou,Ioannis Rizos,Efstratios Patsouris,Ioannis Toumpoulis
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2016; 6(2): 243
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Postoperative atrial fibrillation: a care study
Corinne Hill,Tracey Bowden
British Journal of Cardiac Nursing. 2015; 10(4): 183
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Management of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation in Cardiac Surgery Patients
Jesse Raiten,Prakash A. Patel,Jacob Gutsche
Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2015; 19(2): 122
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Does aortic valve disease etiology predict postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing aortic valve surgery?
Rajesh Dandale,Andrea Rossi,Francesco Onorati,Alexander Krapivsky,Paschalis Kekes,Aldo Milano,Francesco Santini,Giuseppe Faggian
Future Cardiology. 2014; 10(6): 707
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Atrial Fibrillation, Stroke and Mortality Rates Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
Lior Yankelson,Arie Steinvil,Liron Gershovitz,Eran Leshem-Rubinow,Ariel Furer,Sami Viskin,Gad Keren,Shmuel Banai,Ariel Finkelstein
The American Journal of Cardiology. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Dexmedetomidine Does Not Reduce Atrial Fibrillation After Lung Cancer Surgery
Di Ai,Gang Xu,Lei Feng,Jun Yu,Jose Banchs,Ara A. Vaporciyan,Juan P. Cata
Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 MicroRNAs as novel antiarrhythmic targets for atrial fibrillation
Zhiqiang Zhao,Tong Liu,Xinghua Wang,Guangping Li
International Journal of Cardiology. 2013; 168(5): e135
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 An Algorithm for the Practical Management of the New Onset of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Admitted to the ICU
William A. Shapiro,Katharine Schulze
ICU Director. 2012; 3(4): 179
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Practice Implementation
Mary C. Hoffmann
Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2012; 31(3): 193
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 A preliminary study about the effects of warm priming solution on oxidative stress and postoperative atrial fibrillation in open heart surgery
Mustafa Buyukates,Serefden Acikgoz,Erol Aktunc,Ozer Kandemir,Sait Mesut Dogan,Mustafa Aydin
Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2012; 124(17-18): 618
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Introduction
    The Extent of th...
    The Risk Factors...
    The Mechanisms o...
    Do We Need to Tr...
    Modalities for P...
    Other Medications
    Treatment of POAF
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4706    
    Printed230    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded257    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 17    

Recommend this journal