Login | Users Online: 165  
Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size   
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us
 


 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 136-138  

Atrial fibrillation and early clinical outcomes after mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic vs. non-rheumatic mitral stenosis


1 Department of Cardiac Surgery, Yazd Cardiovascular Researches Center, Afshar Hospital, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Medicine, Ali ben Abitaleb Medical College, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

Date of Web Publication9-Jan-2013

Correspondence Address:
S J Mirhosseini
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Afshar Cardiovascular Hospital, Yazd
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-705X.105730

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after open heart surgery that can lead to early morbidity and mortality following operation. Mitral stenosis (MS) is a structural abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus that can be resulted from previous rheumatic fever or non-rheumatic fever such as congenital mitral stenosis, malignant carcinoid disease etc. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that type of mitral stenosis can affect the incidence, duration and frequency of AF post mitral valve replacement.
Materials and Methods: We selected fifty patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and 50 patients with non-rheumatic mitral stenosis who were candidates for mitral valve replacement (MVR) surgery. Pre-operative tests such as CRP, ESR, CBC, UA, ANA, APL (IgM, IgG), ANCA, RF were performed on participants' samples and the type of mitral stenosis, rheumatic or non-rheumatic, was determined clinically. Early post-operative complications such as infection, bleeding, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunction etc., were recorded. All patients underwent holter monitoring after being out of ICU to the time of discharge.
Results: The mean age of patients was 48.56 ± 17.64 years. 57 cases (57%) were male, and 43 cases (43%) were female. Post-operative AF occurred in 14 cases (14%); 3 cases (6%) in non-rheumatic mitral stenosis group, and 11 cases (22%) in the rheumatic mitral stenosis group. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of AF and type of mitral stenosis (P = 0.02). Renal dysfunction after MVR was higher in rheumatic MS group than in non-rheumatic MS group (P = 0.026). There was no relationship between the type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic) and early mortality after mitral valve replacement (P = 0.8).
Conclusion: We concluded that the type of mitral stenosis affect post-operative outcomes, especially the incidence of atrial fibrillation and some complications after mitral valve replacement.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, mitral valve replacement, valvular heart disease


How to cite this article:
Mirhosseini S J, Ali-Hassan-Sayegh S, Hadadzadeh M, Naderi N, Mostafavi Pour Manshadi S. Atrial fibrillation and early clinical outcomes after mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic vs. non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Heart Views 2012;13:136-8

How to cite this URL:
Mirhosseini S J, Ali-Hassan-Sayegh S, Hadadzadeh M, Naderi N, Mostafavi Pour Manshadi S. Atrial fibrillation and early clinical outcomes after mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic vs. non-rheumatic mitral stenosis. Heart Views [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Aug 15];13:136-8. Available from: http://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2012/13/4/136/105730


   Introduction Top


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia after open heart surgery that can lead to early morbidity and mortality following operation. Predisposing factors of post-operative AF include: Age, male sex, BMI >30, atrial dilatation, long-term aortic cross clamp, post-operative pericarditis, pre-operative leukocytosis, and increase in plasma level of inflammatory markers. [1],[2] Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) may increase heart failure, stroke, pulmonary edema, kidney and respiratory disorders, longer stay in ICU and hospital, as well as increase in therapy costs. [3],[4]

Valvular heart diseases (VHD) account for 10-20% of all cardiac surgical procedures in the world. Inflammatory response of the immune system is one of the most important pathogenesis of VHD. [5],[6] Mitral stenosis (MS) is a structural abnormality of the mitral valve apparatus that can result from previous rheumatic fever. Non-rheumatic mitral stenosis may be due to congenital mitral stenosis, malignant carcinoid disease, etc.

This study was designed to compare the incidence of atrial fibrillation and early outcomes following mitral valve replacement in patients with rheumatic or non-rheumatic mitral stenosis, in Afshar Cardiovascular Center, Yazd, Iran.


   Materials and Methods Top


Our cross-sectional study was approved by ethics committee in our university. Patients who were candidates for mitral valve surgery were enrolled in the study which lasted from 15 November 2010 to 15 November 2011 (one year). After obtaining consent forms, the patients underwent mitral valve replacement. All of the operations were performed by one senior surgeon. Fifty patients suffered from rheumatic mitral stenosis who were candidates for mitral valve surgery were enrolled in this study. Pre-operative tests such as C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (UA), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-phospholipid (APL-IgM, IgG), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-c, p), rheumatoid factor (RF) were performed on participants' samples. The type of mitral stenosis, rheumatic or non-rheumatic was determined clinically.

The demographic variables and early post-operative complications such as infection, bleeding, vomiting, renal and respiratory dysfunction, ICU and hospital stay were recorded. All patients underwent holter monitoring after being out of ICU at the time of discharge. Our data were analyzed by SPSS 15 software. We used ANOVA, Chi-square, and Fisher exact test for quantitative and qualitative variables.


   Results Top


Fifty-seven cases (57%) were male and 43 cases (43%) were female. Of all the participants, AF was observed in 14 patients (14%); 9 of whom were male and 5 were female. There was no significant relationship between sex and AF after surgery (P0 = 0.84). POAF occurred in 14 cases (14%); 3 cases (6%) related to non-rheumatic mitral stenosis group, and 11 cases (22%) related to the rheumatic mitral stenosis group [Table 1]. There was a significant relationship between incidence of AF and type of mitral stenosis (P = 0.02).
Table 1: Post-operative atrial fibrilation and early complications after operation in both groups

Click here to view


The mean duration of AF was 1135 ± 1060 min, which in the non-rheumatic MS group was 890 ± 1084 min and in the rheumatic MS group was 1170 ± 1056 min ( P = 0.62). Moreover, the duration of AF which totally was 2.7 ± 1.9 days; in the rheumatic MS group, it was 2.33 ± 1.8 days and in the non-rheumatic MS group, it was 2.86 ± 2.01 days ( P = 0.51). This data shows that duration and frequency of recurrence of AF have no significant relationship with rheumatic or non-rheumatic MS.

Early complications after operation were compared between two groups in [Table 1]. According to [Table 1], post-MVR bleeding was lower in rheumatic MS than in non-rheumatic MS ( P = 0.56). Renal dysfunction after MVR was higher in rheumatic MS than in non-rheumatic MS ( P = 0.02). ICU stay in non-rheumatic MS group was 3.6 ± 1.80 days, while for another group was 3.4 ± 1.26 days. Also, hospital stay duration was 6.5 ± 2.2 days for the non-rheumatic MS group in comparison to the rheumatic MS group that was 8.84 ± 2.06 days. Therefore, rheumatic MS can increase hospitalization stay but cannot prolong ICU stay compared to non-rheumatic MS. Early mortality occurred in 2 cases (2%) in hospital after the operation; 1 case (1%) in the rheumatic MS group and 1 case (1%) in the non-rheumatic MS group. There was no relationship between type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic) and early mortality after mitral valve replacement.


   Discussion Top


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia following open heart surgery and is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalization stay. Its incidence is related to the patient's characteristics and type of surgical operation. Non-congenital and valvular heart disease patients who undergo open heart surgery usually do not have a history of inflammation. However, inflammatory conditions can occur in these patients such as rheumatoid arthritis, anti-phospholipid syndrome, lupus or connective tissue disease. [1],[2],[3]

The report of incidence of post-operative AF in the literature is 20-50% after cardiovascular surgery and occurs two or three days post-operatively. [3],[4] Horskotte et al. reported that the underlying pathology for patients waiting for mitral valve replacement was 77% rheumatic in their study of 1051 patients. [7] Guiherme et al. reported that the most serious complication of patients with valvular heart disease was rheumatic fever in 30-45%. [8]

Our findings show that duration and frequency of recurrence of AF have no significant relationship with rheumatic or non-rheumatic MS, but there was a significant relationship between incidence of AF and type of mitral stenosis. In our study, post-MVR bleeding was lower in rheumatic MS than in non-rheumatic MS; however, there was no significant difference between two groups regarding bleeding. Renal dysfunction after MVR was higher in rheumatic MS than in non-rheumatic MS. Other complications after surgery such as gastrointestinal (GI) and respiratory dysfunction, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite etc., have no significant differences in both groups.

A study conducted by Lindhardsen et al. indicated the rheumatoid arthritis increased the incidence of atrial fibrillation and stroke. They believed that the increasing incidence of atrial fibrillation in rheumatoid arthritis can suggest that atrial fibrillation is relevant in the cardiovascular risk assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. [9] A study carried out by Ozaydin et al. reported that factors associated with the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis are included high sensitivity to C-reactive protein, N-terminal of brain natriuretic peptide precursor and left atrial diameter. [6] Akram et al. suggested that non-rheumatic mitral stenosis is more frequent than is assumed and is associated with risk factors for coronary artery disease. [10]

In our study, there was no relationship between type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic) and early mortality after mitral valve replacement. LaPar et al. suggested that patients undergoing surgical mitral valve replacement have low mortality. Major adverse event's rate was significantly due to post-operative atrial fibrillation. [11] Kim et al. reported that the long-term outcome of patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis after previous percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (PMV) was more favorable after mitral valve replacement than after repeated percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy. [12]

We conclude from this study that the type of mitral stenosis (rheumatic or non-rheumatic MS) had effect on post-operative outcomes, especially incidence of atrial fibrillation and some complications after mitral valve replacement. We recommend that specifying the etiology of mitral stenosis can help cardiac surgeons and may prevent mortality and morbidity of patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.

In conclusion, the long-term outcome of patients with symptomatic MS after previous PMV was more favorable after MVR than after repeated PMV. These data suggest that MVR may be preferred mode of therapy in patients with unfavorable valve morphologic characteristics and no co-morbidities.

 
   References Top

1.Turk T, Vural H, Eris C, Ata Y, Yavuz S. Atrial fibrillation after off-pump coronary artery surgery: A prospective, matched study. J Int Med Res 2007;35:134-42.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Haghjoo M, Basiri H, Salek M, Sadr-Ameli MA, Kargar F, Raissi K, et al. Predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J 2008;8:94-101.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Kalavrouziotis D, Buth KJ, Vyas T, Ali IS. Preoperative atrial fibrillation decreases event-free survival following cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2009;36:293-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Banach M, Kourliouros A, Reinhart KM, Benussi S, Mikhailidis DP, Jahangiri M, et al. Postoperative atrial fibrillation-what do we really know? Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2010;8:553-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Oh S, Kim KB, Ahn H, Cho HJ, Choi YS. Remodeling of ion channel expression in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and mitral valvular heart disease. Korean J Intern Med 2010;25:377-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Ozaydin M, Turker Y, Varol E, Alaca S, Erdogan D, Yilmaz N, et al. Factors associated with the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2010;26:547-52.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Horstkotte D, Niehues R, Strauer BE. Pathomorphological aspects, aetiology and natural history of acquired mitral valve stenosis. Eur Heart J 1991;12:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Guilherme L, Ramasawmy R, Kalil J. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: Genetics and pathogenesis. Scand J Immunol 2007;66:199-207.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Lindhardsen J, Ahlehoff O, Gislason GH, Madsen OR, Olesen JB, Svendsen JH, et al. Risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke in rheumatoid arthritis: Danish nationwide cohort study. BMJ 2012;344:e1257.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Akram MR, Chan T, McAuliffe S, Chenzbraun A. Non-rheumatic annular mitral stenosis: Prevalence and characteristics. Eur J Echocardiogr 2009;10:103-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.LaPar DJ, Mulloy DP, Crosby IK, Lim DS, Kern JA, Kron IL, et al. Contemporary outcomes for surgical mitral valve repair: A benchmark for evaluating emerging mitral valve technology. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:S12-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Kim JB, Ha JW, Kim JS, Shim WH, Kang SM, Ko YG, et al. Comparison of long-term outcome after mitral valve replacement or repeated balloon mitral valvotomy in patients with restenosis after previous balloon valvotomy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99:1571-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Prevalence and clinical characteristics of degenerative mitral stenosis
Yasuyuki Ukita,Satoshi Yuda,Hideaki Sugio,Ayaka Yonezawa,Yuka Takayanagi,Hitomi Masuda-Yamamoto,Norie Tanaka-Saito,Hirofumi Ohnishi,Tetsuji Miura
Journal of Cardiology. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The Challenge of Atrial Tachycardia Management in Rheumatic Heart Disease
EDWARD P. WALSH
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. 2013; 36(7): 791
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2913    
    Printed67    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded199    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal