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Table of Contents
CASE REPORT
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 146-148  

Mobile pedunculated left ventricular masses in a man with recurrent emboli


1 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Department of Cardiology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahrekord, Iran
4 Department of Otolaryngology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Shahrekord, Iran

Date of Web Publication9-Jan-2013

Correspondence Address:
Zahra Danesh
Department of Otolaryngology, Kashani Hospital, Shariati Sq., Shahrekord
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-705X.105734

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   Abstract 

A 51-year-old man was found to have left ventricular masses by transthoracic echocardiography, one attached to the posterior wall of the left ventricle and another attached to the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. He had several events of systemic embolization over the last few weeks. Surgical excision was recommended to avoid further embolization. The patient underwent successful resection of the left ventricular masses under cardiopulmonary bypass through the left atrial and transverse aortotomy approach. Histopathologic exam was diagnostic for organized thrombi.

Keywords: Echocardiography, left ventricular mass, thrombus


How to cite this article:
Bakhtiari RE, Khaledifar A, Kabiri M, Danesh Z. Mobile pedunculated left ventricular masses in a man with recurrent emboli. Heart Views 2012;13:146-8

How to cite this URL:
Bakhtiari RE, Khaledifar A, Kabiri M, Danesh Z. Mobile pedunculated left ventricular masses in a man with recurrent emboli. Heart Views [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Aug 14];13:146-8. Available from: http://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2012/13/4/146/105734


   Introduction Top


Intracardiac masses are mostly thought to be thrombi or tumors. [1] The left ventricular thrombus is usually located in the aneurismal or akinetic apical left ventricle. [2] We describe a case of left ventricular thrombi with several events of systemic embolization that were located in the areas that were not akinetic or hypokinetic.


   Case Report Top


A 51-year-old man presented to the Neurologic Department because of right-sided weakness and recurrent left-sided paresthesias and bilateral visual disturbance for two weeks. He had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and smoking. He also had a history of myocardial infarction three years earlier.

Computed tomography scan of the patient's brain demonstrated evidence of bioccipital ischemic infarct and multiple regions of lacunar infarction of basal ganglia and internal capsule. General hematological and biochemical tests were normal. To evaluate the source of emboli, Carotid Doppler measurements and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Carotid Doppler measurements were normal. Transthoracic echocardiography showed mild left ventricular dilatation with moderate systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction 35-40%), akinesia of base of infeior segment andhypokinesia of lateral (base and mid) segment. There were two mobile masses in the left ventricle, one attached to the posterior wall of the left ventricle (2.5 × 1.8 cm) and another mass (2.8 × 2.2 cm) attached to the antrolateral wall of the left ventricle (mid part) which suggested cardiac tumor [Figure 1]. The patient was referred to our cardiology department for evaluation of cardiac masses. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed and confirmed TTE findings. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was not obtainable as a result of patient noncompliance. Due to our patient's regional wall motion abnormalities and history of myocardial infarction and diabetes, a coronary angiography was performed which showed severe three vessels disease. Our presumptive diagnosis was left ventricular myxoma. In view of these findings and the history of recurrent systemic embolism, the patient subsequently underwent open heart surgery for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and tumor resection. Trans-left atrial excision of the mass was performed through a median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. A reddish purple colored mass with an irregular surface (2.5 × 2 cm in diameter) was identified, that was attached to the posterior wall of the ventricle below the posterior mitral leaflet by a 2-3 mm tissue stalk about 1.5 cm under the mitral annulus. Another mass was not accessible trans-left atrium and mitral valve, thus a transverse aortotomy was performed. A reddish purple colored irregular surface mass (3 × 4 cm in diameter) that was attached to the antrolateral wall of the ventricle about 5 cm under the aortic annulus was excised. After resection of the masses CABG was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. The histologic diagnosis revealed an organizing thrombus with no evidence of tumor cells [Figure 2].

The patient was discharged with slight improvement of neurological deficit. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed no evidence of residual mass and ejection fraction had improved to 45%.
Figure 1: Transthoracic echocardiogram showing the masses attached to the (a) posterior wall of the left ventricle, (b) anterolateral wall of the left ventricle

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Figure 2: Microscopic finding of the thrombus in the left ventricle

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   Discussion Top


Masses in the left ventricle (LV) are usually intracardiac tumors, thrombi or vegetations. [1] We made a presumptive diagnosis of LV myxoma based on echocardiographic and intraoperative appearance of pedunculated, mobile masses that were in the areas of the left ventricle that were not akinetic or hypokinetic (under the posterior mitral leaflet on the posterior wall and on the anterolateral wall). However, histology revealed the masses to be thrombi.

Thrombi generally involve the apex of the left ventricle, most often in the presence of akinesis or dyskinesis. LV thrombus formation is extremely rare in the absence of an akinetic or dyskinetic apex or diffuse LV dysfunction. [2],[3] The vast majority of these thrombi are mural, flat, and immobile, and have a low risk of embolism. Mobile, pedunculated thrombi are rare in comparison with mural thrombi, however, they have a significantly higher risk of embolism. [4],[5],[6]

There are no established protocols for management of these cases. Although anticoagulant treatment may cause some left ventricular thrombi to resolve and the risk of systemic emboli may be reduced significantly, recurrent embolization during anticoagulant treatment has been reported. Moreover, the outcome of patients with recurrent emboli from mobile, pedunculated thrombi who are not treated surgically is generally very poor compared with that of the limited number who undergo surgery. [5] Left ventricular thrombectomy should be considered in patients in whom a very high-risk thrombus morphology is detected. [6] These thrombi are usually of a pedunculated globular nature connected to the endocardium by a very narrow stalk, moving freely in a "wavy" motion within the LV lumen, and constitute a risk for embolization of a magnitude approaching 60-80%. [7]

Therefore we strongly believe that patients with prior embolism must be offered immediate surgery, especially if the thrombus is large with an irregular surface, pedunculated, and multiple in number. Making an incision in the ventricular wall may cause further deterioration of the LV function, especially if the LV function is already poor. In addition, an incision in the ventricular wall may increase the risk of bleeding, and ventriculotomy may potentially induce ventricular arrhythmia and poor function. [8],[9] The surgical approach to LV masses can be made through the left atrium, aorta, or left ventricle. [10] Our surgical approach to the LV mass was through the left atrium. The second mass was not accessible through the left atrium, thus a transverse aortotomy was performed.

In this case the presentation of LV masses was atypical for two reasons: Thrombi were in areas of the left ventricle that were not akinetic or hypokinetic, and the morphology of the thrombi was unusual.

 
   References Top

1.Sezgin A, Akay HT, Korun O, Gultekin B, Bilezikci B. Surgical management of myxoma like sclerotic calcified mass in left ventricle out flow tract. Kosuyolu Heart J 2011;14:26-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Okuyan E, Okcun B, Dinçkal MH, Mutlu H. Risk factors for development of left ventricular thrombus after first acute anterior myocardial infarction-association with anticardiolipin antibodies. Thromb J 2010;8:15.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Feigenbaum H. ICU and operative/perioperative applications. In: Feigenbaum H, Armstrong WF, Ryan T, editors. Feigenbaum's Echocardiography. 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. p. 710-25.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Tsukube T, Okada M, Ootaki Y, Tsuji Y, Yamashita C. Transaortic video-assisted removal of a left ventricular thrombus. Ann Thorac Surg 1999;68:1063-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Rehan A, Kanwar M, Rosman H, Ahmed S, Ali A, Gardin J, et al. Incidence of post myocardial infarction left ventricular thrombus formation in the era of primary percutaneous intervention and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. A prospective observational study. Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2006;4:20.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Early GL, Ballenger M, Hannah H 3 rd , Roberts SR. Simplified method of left ventricular thrombectomy. Ann Thorac Surg 2001;72:953-4.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Glikson M, Agranat O, Ziskind Z, Kaplinski E, Vered Z. From swirling to a mobile, pedunculated mass: The evolution of left ventricular thrombus despite full anticoagulation. Echocardiographic demonstration. Chest 1993;103:281-3.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Kuh JH, Seo Y. Transatrial resection of a left ventricular thrombus after acute myocarditis. Heart Vessels 2005;20:230-2.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.Kanemitsu S, Miyake Y, Okabe M. Surgical removal of a left ventricular thrombus associated with cardiac sarcoidosis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2008;7:333-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Yadava OP, Yadav S, Juneja S, Chopra VK, Passey R, Ghadiok R. Left ventricular thrombus sans overt cardiac pathology. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;76:623-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]


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