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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 47-52  

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with coronary artery disease in Mumbai, India


1 Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, B. G. Nagara, Mandya, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Global Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication23-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pavan Malleshappa
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, B. G. Nagara, Nagamangala, Mandya, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-705X.159219

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   Abstract 

Background and Objective: To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) demonstrated on coronary angiography.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 125 patients admitted to Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, with CAD were included in the study.
Results: Left anterior descending artery was the major vessel involved (40%), followed by a circumflex artery (21.6%). 49 out of 125 (39.2%) were found to have underlying CKD. 69% (34) of these CKD patients developed AKI. 21 out of 34 patients who developed AKI required hemodialysis. Only 47.1% (16 out of 34) of CKD patients had complete recovery, 29% had partial recovery, and 23% had no recovery of their renal function from AKI. Statistically significant number of patients in CKD group had no recovery from AKI as compared to non-CKD group (23.5% vs. 0%).
Conclusion: Our study concludes that there is a very high prevalence of CKD (39.2%) in patients with CAD and AKI is a very important complication (38.4%) in these patients. Considering such a high prevalence of CKD, nephrology referral must be considered in patients with abnormal urinalysis, spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio and in patients whose creatinine clearance is <60 ml/min.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, hemodialysis


How to cite this article:
Malleshappa P, Shah BV. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with coronary artery disease in Mumbai, India. Heart Views 2015;16:47-52

How to cite this URL:
Malleshappa P, Shah BV. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients with coronary artery disease in Mumbai, India. Heart Views [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Jun 26];16:47-52. Available from: http://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2015/16/2/47/159219


   Introduction Top


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. [1] CKD occurs commonly in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD is a major and serious risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). [2] CAD is extremely common in the population of uremic patients. In people with established CAD, CKD predicts recurrent events as strongly as other established cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and elevated blood pressure. [3] Whether the cardiovascular risk in the setting of CKD is due to increased atherosclerotic burden, higher risk of plaque rupture as a result of inflammation, [4] or other mechanisms is unknown.

The incidence and severity of obstructive CAD increases as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines. [5],[6] CAD shows a pattern of diffuse multivessel involvement with coronary calcification; small angiographic studies suggest that this incidence exceeds 50% in unselected CKD five-dimension patients. [7],[8],[9],[10],[11] Among patients with CAD, concomitant CKD portends a worse prognosis. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are inversely and independently associated with kidney function, particularly at estimated GFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . [12],[13] Standard cardiovascular risk factors are common in CKD, but do not fully explain the high incidence of cardiovascular events or increased mortality rates; [14],[15] their association with cardiovascular outcomes is attenuated or even reversed at the most advanced CKD stages. [16]

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients with CAD, who undergo coronary angiography (CAG). Although the incidence of AKI requiring dialysis is low, the presence of even small changes in kidney function has been associated with adverse short-term outcomes, including target vessel reocclusion, prolonged hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. [17] The long-term clinical consequences of AKI in this setting are less clear. Our study aims to determine prevalence of CKD in patients with CAD demonstrated on CAG, to determine how many went on to develop AKI; amongst those who developed AKI how many had complete recovery, partial recovery, and no recovery of renal function.


   Materials and Methods Top


  1. Totally, 125 patients admitted to Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, between September 2007 and October 2009 with acute coronary syndrome with angiographic evidence of >50% stenosis in one or more coronary vessels were included in the study
  2. All patients were evaluated for the evidence of CKD. Serum creatinine, routine urine analysis, and spot urine for protein to creatinine ratio of all patients were measured using the standard technique in the clinical laboratory. For secondary analysis, creatinine clearance (mL/min/1.73 m 2 of body surface area) was estimated by the Cockroft-Gault equation. Patients whose creatinine clearance is <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 of body surface area for at least 3 months prior to the current admission are diagnosed to have CKD as per K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for CKD [18]
  3. AKI was defined according to the risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney (RIFLE) criteria. [19] We used the change in serum creatinine level to define AKI according to RIFLE criteria. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine levels ≥1.5 × baseline
  4. Serum creatinine levels were measured at the end of 3 months in those patients, who developed AKI, to find out how many had complete recovery, partial recovery and no recovery of their renal function.


Statistical analysis

Statistical software


The Statistical software namely SPSS 15.0 was used for the analysis of the data and Microsoft word and Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables, etc. Chi-square/Fisher exact test has been used to find the significance of study parameters on the categorical scale between two or more groups.


   Results Top


Totally, 125 patients with angiography proven CAD were included in the study. Majority of patients (40%) belong to 60-70 years age group [Table 1]. Among 125 patients, 77.6% were found to be males and 22.4% were found to be females [Table 1]. Hypertension was found to be the more prevalent (66.4%) co-morbid condition associated with CAD, followed by diabetes mellitus (50.4%). Left anterior descending was the major vessel involved (40%), followed by a circumflex artery (21.6%). Majority of the patients had single-vessel disease (79.2%), followed by triple vessel disease (15.2%) and double vessel disease (5.6%) being the least common. Fifty-five percent of patients had <0.2 g proteinuria/day on spot urine for protein to creatinine ratio estimation, 22.4% had proteinuria in the range of 0.2-1 g/day, 10.4% between 1 and 2 g/day, 9.6% between 2 and 3 g/day, and 2.4% had proteinuria of >3 g/day.
Table 1: Demographic variables of patients studied


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Approximately 40% of patients had stage III CKD during admission [Figure 1]. AKI developed in 38.4% of patients. 69% of these had underlying CKD [Table 2]. Approximately 55% of patients who developed AKI required renal replacement therapy in the form of hemodialysis (HD). Among 55%, significant number of patients requiring HD belongs to CKD group (43.8%) [Figure 2]. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) preventive measures in the form of hydration using normal saline or N-acetyl cysteine or sodium bicarbonate were used in 46.9% of CKD patients [Table 3]. Statistically significant number of patients developed AKI in the CKD group, which did not receive any CIN preventive measures (P < 0.001). Statistically significant correlation was found between low hemoglobin levels and development of AKI in CKD group [Table 4]. There was no significant difference with respect to age, gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes and levels of serum creatinine, serum calcium and serum phosphorus levels between patients with and without CKD in development of AKI. Creatinine clearance at the end of 3 months was measured in those patients who developed AKI during their coronary evaluation. Majority of patients were found to have a creatinine clearance in the range of 15-30 ml/min (33.3%), followed by 30-60 ml/min (31.3%), >60 ml/min (25%) and <15 ml/min (10.4%). Recovery of renal function at the end of 3 months in CKD and non-CKD groups is shown in [Table 5].
Figure 1: Creatinine clearance - at admission

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Figure 2: AKI requiring hemodialysis AKI: Acute kidney injury, HD: Hemodialysis, CKD: Chronic kidney disease

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Table 2: AKI


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Table 3: CIN preventive measures and its influence on the development of AKI


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Table 4: Characteristics of patients who developed AKI in CKD and non-CKD group


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Table 5: Outcome at 3 months


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   Discussion Top


It is estimated that up to 11% of adults in the United States have CKD. [20] CKD is a major and serious risk factor for CAD. [2] Recent studies have confirmed that even early CKD constitutes a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events and death, [3],[13] and proper management of CVD is different and more complex in patients with CKD. [21] Both the frequency of cardiovascular complications and the progression of CKD can be ameliorated in these patients by appropriate intervention. For all these reasons, we evaluated patients who got admitted with CAD for the presence of CKD as part of preventive care and treatment strategies. In our study, 78% of the subjects studied were males, 22% of the subjects were females, indicating that CAD is more prevalent among males than females. These findings were similar with the results of the studies by Liu et al. [22]

Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in coronary artery disease

We found that the prevalence of CKD among 125 subjects with CAD was 39.2%. Liu et al. in their study found that the prevalence of CKD among the 3513 China Heart Survey (CHS) participants with coronary heart disease was 24.8%. [22] Mielniczuk et al. in their study, estimated baseline eGFR for the 4181 patients with non-ST or ST elevation acute coronary syndromes who participated in the Aggrastat-to-Zocor Trial. [23] The baseline eGFR in their study was 67.8 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (range, 9.7-149.2 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) indicating that a significant number of patients had underlying CKD.

Incidence of acute kidney injury

In our study, 48 patients (38.4%) out of 125 developed AKI (defined as an increase in serum creatinine levels ≥1.5 × baseline). Of 48 patients who developed AKI, 34 of them had underlying CKD. 54.2% (26 out of 48) of these AKI patients required renal replacement therapy in the form of HD. Requirement of HD was more in patients with underlying CKD (21 vs. 5) as compared to non-CKD patients. Parikh et al. performed an observational study of 147,007 elderly Medicare patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as a part of the cooperative cardiovascular project. [24] They evaluated the association between AKI and all-cause mortality in the above-mentioned population. In their study, 19.4% of the patients had AKI. Goldberg et al. studied the incidence and clinical significance of transient versus persistent AKI in 1957 patients who survived an ST-elevation AMI. [25] AKI developed in 46.7% of the patients, of these 3.9% (10) patients received renal replacement therapy.

Assessment of renal function at the end of 3 months in those patients who developed acute kidney injury following acute coronary event

We followed-up 48 patients, who developed AKI to find out how many had complete recovery, partial recovery, and no recovery of AKI at the end of 3 months. Of 14 non-CKD patients who developed AKI, 8 (57.1%) patients had complete recovery and 6 (42.9%) had partial recovery of AKI. Of 34 CKD patients, 16 (47.1%) had complete recovery, 10 (29.4%) had partial recovery, and 8 (23.5%) had no recovery of AKI. Statistically significant number of patients developed no recovery of their renal function in CKD group (23.5% vs. 0) as compared to non-CKD (P < 0.001). These patients became dialysis dependents.

Our study has several limitations

  1. Only 125 patients were studied. This is a small number considering the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the society. However, limited time that we get to do our thesis makes it difficult to include large numbers
  2. Long-term follow-up was not done in our study. Long-term follow-up would have given a better idea about progression of renal dysfunction and its impact on cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality
  3. Finally, we did not address the influence of different therapies that were administered during the acute phase of the CAD on the changes in renal function.


Our study concludes

  1. In view of high prevalence of CKD (39.2%) in patients with CAD, every patient undergoing CAG must have renal function evaluation before CAG including Urine ® , Spot urine for albumin to creatinine ratio and serum creatinine levels
  2. Considering such a high prevalence of CKD, nephrology referral must be considered in patients with abnormal urinalysis, spot urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and in patients whose creatinine clearance is <60 ml/min
  3. AKI is an important complication of CAG and precautions should be taken to prevent it
  4. Significant number of patients has worsening of renal function at the end of 3 months. We find many patients developing progressive CKD after an episode of acute coronary syndrome
  5. All patients should have their renal function assessed 3 months after the CAG.


 
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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


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