Login | Users Online: 54  
Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size   
Home | About us | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Submit article | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us
 


 
Table of Contents
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 88-98  

Ranolazine: Multifaceted role beyond coronary artery disease, a recent perspective


1 Department of Cardiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai St. Luke's, New York, USA
4 Department of Cardiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication18-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gopal Chandra Ghosh
Christian Medical College and Hospital, Room No. 310, Hospital Annexe, Hospital Campus, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_18_18

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Ranolazine is a piperazine derivative approved as an antianginal. Primarily used as a second-line antianginal in stable coronary artery disease. Ranolazine blocks the late Na + current and prevents the rise of cytosolic calcium. It decreases myocardial wall tension and improves coronary blood flow. Ranolazine is effective in atrial fibrillation (AF) as an adjunct to electrical or pharmacological cardioversion. It can be used in combination with amiodarone or dronedarone. It has also been used in AF arising after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Role of ranolazine is also being evaluated in pulmonary arterial hypertension, diastolic dysfunction, and chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. Ranolazine has some anti-glycemic effect and has shown a reduction of hemoglobin A1c in multiple trials. The antianginal effect of ranolazine has also been seen to be more in patients with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. Ranolazine is being evaluated in patients with the peripheral arterial disease with intermittent claudication and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Pilot studies have shown that ranolazine may be beneficial in neurological conditions with myotonia. The evidence-base on the use of ranolazine in various conditions is rapidly increasing with results of further trials eagerly awaited. Accumulating evidence may see ranolazine in routine clinical use for many conditions beyond its traditional role as an antianginal.

Keywords: Angina pectoris, Combination Assessment of Ranolazine in Stable Angina, Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina, Monotherapy Assessment of Ranolazine in Stable Angina, ranolazine hydrochloride, sodium channel blockers


How to cite this article:
Ghosh GC, Ghosh RK, Bandyopadhyay D, Chatterjee K, Aneja A. Ranolazine: Multifaceted role beyond coronary artery disease, a recent perspective. Heart Views 2018;19:88-98

How to cite this URL:
Ghosh GC, Ghosh RK, Bandyopadhyay D, Chatterjee K, Aneja A. Ranolazine: Multifaceted role beyond coronary artery disease, a recent perspective. Heart Views [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 18];19:88-98. Available from: http://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2018/19/3/88/254347




   Introduction Top


Ranolazine hydrochloride is an anti-ischemic agent. It was approved in January 2006 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic stable angina. Based on current evidence, ranolazine has been included as a second-line antianginal in North-American and European guidelines for the management of chronic stable angina.[1],[2] Since its approval, the drug has shown benefits beyond angina relief. Extended benefits have been observed in the management of arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation (AF), and in diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and chemotherapy-related cardiotoxicity.[3] Ranolazine has also shown promise in the management of diabetes mellitus.[3]

In this article, we present a comprehensive review of ranolazine's pharmacology, mechanism of action, and recent preclinical and clinical evidence.


   Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Top


Ranolazine is a piperazine derivative available as extended-release tablets of 500 or 1000 mg. Typical doses are 500–1000 mg twice daily. Plasma concentration peaks 2–5 h after oral administration with an elimination half-life of 2 h. The drug is metabolized principally in the liver and excreted principally through the kidneys [Table 1].[4],[5]
Table 1: Salient facts about ranolazine

Click here to view


Ranolazine acts by blocking late sodium channels (INa).[6] It thus prevents downstream rise in cytosolic Ca+2 concentrations, which translates into mechanical effects including a decrease in left ventricular wall tension and increase in coronary blood flow, leading to angina relief. INa blocking also leads to stabilization of the myocardial cell membrane, likely responsible for its anti-arrhythmic effect. The late rectifier K + current inhibition contributes to its anti-arrhythmic effect. With regard to its beneficial effect in diabetes, it has been postulated that ranolazine blocks Na + channels in the pancreatic islet alpha-cells to inhibit glucagon release. Studies have also revealed its role in pancreatic beta-cell preservation[7],[8] [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Ranolazine: Mechanism of action

Click here to view



   Role as an Antianginal Top


Ranolazine is a piperazine derivative approved by the FDA in 2006 for treatment of chronic stable angina.[9] The Monotherapy Assessment of Ranolazine in Stable Angina trial showed that ranolazine monotherapy improved exercise duration in angina.[10] The Combination Assessment of Ranolazine in Stable Angina (CARISA) trial demonstrated improved exercise duration with ranolazineas a component of combination therapy.[11] In the Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina trial, treatment with ranolazine improved self-reported angina.[12] These data have helped establish the role of ranolazine in refractory stable angina [Table 2].
Table 2: Clinical trials with ranolazine (www.clinicaltrials.gov)

Click here to view



   Role Beyond Angina Top


Ranolazine in arrhythmias

Ranolazine has a multi-channel effect on cardiomyocytes. It inhibits late INa, IKr, ICa, and INa-Ca current. There is no effect on Ito, IK1, and IKs. It reduces Na+ and Ca++ overload in cardiac myocytes which leads to its antiarrhythmic effect.[13] Ranolazine also decreases early and delayed afterdepolarizations.[14] Ranolazine displays selective action on atrial cardiomyocytes. A possible mechanism for this selectivity has been borne out in a study in rabbit hearts. Atrial cells showed more INa conductance, more negative activation and inactivation potentials of INa and more trapping of ranolazine in the inactivated Na channel.[15]

There is also a possible role of ranolazine in molecular signaling pathways that prevent AF. In a rat model of Ach-CaCl2 induced AF, ranolazine improved mitochondrial function reduced oxidative stress and decreased atrial myoyte apoptosis. It also increased protective signaling via the Akt/mTOR pathway.[16]

In chronic kidney disease patients, there is an increased incidence of AF, potentially mediated by FGF-23 on late Na and calcium channels. This increases arrhythmogenesis in pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes. By inhibiting the late Na current and preventing Ca overload, ranolazine may have a role in preventing AF in this patient subset.[17]

Preclinical data

A preclinical trial compared the effect of dofetilide and ranolazine on acutely induced AF in 8 horses. Ranolazine in combination with dofetilide was found to convert AF to sinus rhythm, and decrease AF vulnerability and duration compared with either drug alone. Neither drug had any effect on the atrial effective refractory period.[18] In another preclinical study ranolazine was compared with vernakalant for cardioversion of acutely induced AF in 15 rabbit hearts. AF was induced with atrial burst pacing and acetylcholine/isoproterenol. Ranolazine and vernakalant had similar efficacy in preventing AF.

As opposed to vernakalant, ranolazine significantly increased the atrial effective refractory period.[19] Ranolazine has been tested in combination with ivabradine in AF in pigs. A combination of the two drugs decreased ventricular rate by reducing conduction at the AV node (increased A-H interval) and decreasing the dominant AF frequency. This was achieved at clinically safe levels without decreasing cardiac contractility or prolongation of the QT interval.[20] AF is common in heart failure and many anti-arrhythmic agents are contraindicated.

Ranolazine was studied in a canine-model right atrial and left ventricular preparation with tachycardia-induced heart failure. It suppressed induction of AF by increasing the atrial effective refractory period and atrial conduction time. No proarrhythmic effect on the ventricle was noted.[21] In a porcine model of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT), ranolazine reduced VT and T wave alternans incidence.[22] Ranolazine has also been shown noninferior to lidocaine and sotalol in preventing ischemia-reperfusion induced VT in a rat model.[23] Two preclinical trials of ranolazine in a rat model of long QT syndrome have shown promising results. Ranolazine reduced prolongation of the QT interval, suppressed early after depolarizations and the frequency of torsades de pointes.[24],[25]

Clinical data

Metabolic efficiency with ranolazine for less ischemia in nonST-elevation acute coronary syndrome thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 36 (MERLIN-TIMI 36) was a large randomized controlled trial involving 6560 patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ranolazine in the nonST-elevation myocardial infarction setting. It showed that treatment with ranolazine resulted in a significantly lower incidence of VT, supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular pauses compared to placebo. However, its addition to standard treatment for acute coronary syndromes was not effective in reducing major cardiovascular events.[26],[27]

Ranolazine was evaluated in patients with coronary artery disease and paroxysmal AF who had a dual chamber pacemaker capable of detecting AF. Ranolazine 375 mg twice daily compared to placebo reduced the total time in AF and mean AF duration. There was no significant difference in QTc.[28] In the RAFAELLO trial, 241 patients with AF who underwent electrical cardioversion were randomized 2 h after the procedure to receive either Ranolazine 375 mg twice daily, 500 mg twice daily, 750 mg twice daily or placebo. Ranolazine was safe and well tolerated. It did not prolong time to AF recurrence. The 500 mg and 750 mg arms combined showed a reduction in AF recurrence with borderline statistical significance.[29]

Koskinas et al. showed that ranolazine has an additive effect with amiodarone in conversion of AF to sinus rhythm.[30] Tsanaxidis et al. showed a single 1000 mg oral dose of ranolazine added to amiodarone leads to quicker return to sinus rhythm and a higher conversion rate to sinus than amiodarone alone. The addition of ranolazine had no adverse impact on left ventricular function.[31]

Two meta-analyses have confirmed the additive benefit of ranolazine to amiodarone in AF. The addition of ranolazine quickens the time to cardioversion of AF. It also helps prevent new-onset AF in people with sinus rhythm.[32],[33] The HARMONY trial revealed that a combination of ranolazine and dronedarone was effective in significantly reducing AF burden compared to placebo.[34] To evaluate the possible mechanism for this synergistic effect, patch clamp experiments from atrial myocytes of patients in sinus rhythm were conducted. They revealed increased action potential duration, decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak and membrane hyperpolarization when ranolazine and dronedarone were used alone or in combination. These inhibitory effects may partly explain the results of HARMONY trial.[35] Several small studies have shown that ranolazine in moderate doses significantly shortens the mean time of conversion from AF to sinus rhythm and also reduces the occurrence of AF in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).[36],[37],[38],[39],[40]

Another trial evaluated the role of ranolazine in postoperative AF (POAF). Patients undergoing CABG, valve surgery, or a combination were included. The addition of ranolazine to standard therapy significantly decreased POAF frequency. There was no effect on Insensitive Care Unit stay or cardiovascular mortality, but the 30 days cardiovascular readmission rate was reduced.[40] The Ranolazine Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of ranolazine with placebo in preventing VT in patients with ICDs. The endpoint measured was ventricular arrhythmia requiring ICD intervention. This study has been completed, and results are awaited.[41] Intravenous ranolazine has also been found to decrease QT prolongation in 5 patients of LQT3 in a concentration-dependent manner.[42]

Existing evidence suggests that ranolazine is effective in the management of AF, especially in postcardioversion and post-CABG situations, and potentially additive with amiodarone and dronedarone in pharmacological cardioversion. However, these small studies are not sufficiently powered to provide conclusive evidence.

Ranolazine in ischemic reperfusion injury

Ischemia-reperfusion is associated with diastolic calcium overload and reduction in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients. Application of ranolazine during ischemia-reperfusion significantly improved intracellular calcium handling. Ranolazine increases calcium concentrations in sarcoplasmic reticulum, thus preventing intracellular calcium overload in diastole, which in turn preserves intracellular calcium transients.[43]

Preclinical data

In animal studies, ranolazine shown several benefits. It reduces myocardial infarct size and improves left ventricular function. Animals in the ranolazine-treated arm were found to have a decrease in ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and improved outcomes in heart failure.[44]

Clinical data

Ranolazine for Incomplete Vessel Revascularization Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (RIVER-PCI) was a large, randomized, multi-center, double-blind, phase three trial, designed to investigate the effect of ranolazine in reducing ischemia-driven revascularization and hospitalization in patients who had incomplete revascularization after PCI.[45] This trial analyzed 2604 patients from 245 centers from 4 countries and followed them for a median of 643 days. Patients received either ranolazine 1000 mg twice daily or placebo. The primary endpoint was time to first ischemia related event, either hospitalization or revascularization, which occurred in 26% in the ranolazine and 28% in the placebo group, which was not a statistically significant difference.[45]

Secondary analysis of the RIVER-PCI study showed the ranolazine arm had improved quality of life at 6- and 12 months postrevascularization. Improvement in angina was noted in the ranolazine arm at 6 months postrevascularization, but this benefit did not persist beyond a year. Improvements in angina was especially pronounced in diabetic patients and those with severe baseline symptoms.[46]

Considering the outcomes from RIVER PCI trial, ranolazine may have a role in the treatment of angina after incomplete revascularization, especially in diabetic patients, but dedicated prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Ranolazine in pulmonary hypertension

Studies have suggested that ranolazine may have anti-arrhythmic and anti-inflammatory effects on the left heart.[47] Although the left and right ventricle have physiological differences, pathological processes such as ischemia, diastolic calcium overload, oxidative stress, and fibrosis are equally prevalent in both left and right heart chambers. This has prompted research to assess the potential role of ranolazine in PH.

Preclinical data

Lee et al. revealed that treatment with ranolazine reduced right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and fibrosis in monocrotaline-induced PH in rats. They also revealed reduced levels of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in ranolazine treated rats.[48] Rocchetti et al. showed that treatment with ranolazine prevents constitutive enhancement of the late sodium current, thus blunting myocardial remodeling in a rat model.[49]

Clinical data

Evidence to define the role of ranolazine in PH patients remains preliminary. A phase I study showed that ranolazine is safe in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) without any acute hemodynamic changes. However, PAH patients treated with ranolazine receiving background pulmonary vasodilator therapies inconsistently reached therapeutic ranolazine levels.[50] In another pilot study by Khan et al., ranolazine treatment was found to be safe and well tolerated in PAH patients. After 3 months of treatment with ranolazine, patients showed improvements in functional class, decrease in RV size, improvements in RV function measured by strain echocardiography, and improvement in exercise time. Despite these beneficial actions, ranolazine failed to show improvements in hemodynamic parameters.[51]

Further studies are warranted to study the role of ranolazine in the management of PH.

Ranolazine in heart failure

Preclinical data

Hypertensive rats with altered diastolic function treated with ranolazine showed improvements in diastolic parameters. Treatment with ranolazine improved the rate of LV pressure change (dp/dt), decreased LV end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and improved the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship. In addition, ranolazine treatment decreased LV hypertrophy.[52]

Clinical data

The effects of ranolazine on diastolic function parameters were heterogeneous. Pilot studies demonstrated that treatment with ranolazine improved echocardiographic diastolic parameters.[53],[54] RALI-DHF was a small, single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the role of ranolazine on diastolic parameters. Patients with LV ejection fraction >45% with altered diastolic function parameters and elevated NT-Pro BNP (>220 pg/ml) were included. Ranolazine was given as continuous intravenous infusion for 24 h followed by oral therapy for next 13 days. Ranolazine infusion improved LVEDP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Mean pulmonary artery pressure showed a trend toward improvement, but NT-proBNP levels did not change.[55],[56] Murray and Colombo showed that ranolazine added to guideline-directed pharmacotherapy for congestive heart failure, preserved and even improved left ventricular ejection fraction and autonomic measures when treatment was continued for 24 months.[57] Venkataraman et al. showed in a small study that treatment with ranolazine improved systolic and diastolic LV dyssynchrony.[58]

Ranolazine is also a partial fatty acid beta-oxidation inhibitor at higher serum concentration compared to the concentration required for inhibition of late sodium current.[59] Ranolazine at higher doses may have cardioprotective actions in patients with heart failure.[59] These experimental studies will likely help pave the way for larger clinical studies to further assess the role of ranolazine in heart failure.

Ranolazine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity

Anthracyclines probably cause hyperactivation of late inward sodium current which ultimately leads to cytosolic calcium overload. Simultaneously, anthracyclines also induce reactive oxygen species production. Both these mechanisms are responsible for sustained oxidative and energetic stresses, and lead to cardiomyocyte and cardiac stem cell death.[60]

Preclinical study

In a mouse model, treatment with ranolazine prevents doxorubicin induced left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. Treatment with ranolazine also prevents increment in atrial natriuretic peptide, BNP, connective tissue growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 mRNA elevations seen with doxorubicin treatment.

This suggests that ranolazine may be effective in preventing direct cardiomyocyte injury and may decrease cardiomyocyte wall tension exerted by chemotherapeutic agents.[61] There is paucity of data in this area but results of the INTERACT study are awaited. INTERACT is an open label, multi-center, phase IIB study designed to assess the potentially beneficial effects of ranolzine on post-chemotherapy diastolic dysfunction.[62]

Role in diabetes mellitus

Preclinical data

An animal study showed that ranolazine increases pancreatic beta cell survival and improves glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.[8] A recent study by Dhalla et al. revealed that the anti-hyperglyemic effect of ranolazine in humans results predominantly from a unique blockade of Pancreatic α-cell voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaChs), which leads to decreases in basal and postprandial glucagon secretion.[7]

Clinical data

The CARISA trial revealed that ranolazine treatment was associated with a reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c) levels in patients with stable angina. In this trial, HbA1c was not a prespecified outcome and further stratification of results based on insulin or oral anti-hyperglycemic usage was not possible.[11] A post hoc analysis of the MERLIN-TIMI 36 trial demonstrated a reduction in HbA1c of 0.64% in diabetic patients randomized to the ranolazine arm. Fasting plasma glucose was also significantly reduced by a mean of 25.7 mg/dl. The MERLIN-TIMI trial was not designed to study glycemic outcomes, which remains a limitation of this trial.[63],[64]

Trials evaluating the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ranolazine monotherapy in diabetic patients have revealed that treatment with ranolazine can reduce HBA1c level by 0.51%–0.56% compared to placebo, allowing a greater number of patients to achieve their glycemic goal.[65],[66] This may be related to some extent to a decrease in insulin resistance.[67] The magnitude of reduction of angina and reduction in rescue nitrate usage were greater in diabetic patients in the TERISA trial.[68] Recently, a secondary analysis of the RIVER-PCI trial evaluated 961 diabetic patients with angina and incomplete revascularization after PCI. It showed a further reduction in angina frequency in patients with HbA1c ≥7.5% compared to those with a HbA1c <7.5%.[69] Considering the data available on the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ranolazine, it may have a place in the management of stable ischemic heart disease with diabetes.

Ranolazine in peripheral arterial disease

Ranolazine reduces cardiac ischemia by selective deactivation of the late sodium current. Skeletal muscles also contain sodium channels which have both rapid and slow phases. Ischemia induced changes in the sodium channels of skeletal muscles may respond to ranolazine in manner similar as does ischemic myocardium. Ranolazine also improves endothelial function. In a pig model, intra-femoral injection of ranolazine causes persistent dilatation of the arterial bed compared to nitroglycerin. This may be secondary to an α1-adrenergic receptor blocking effect without altering the heart rate or systemic blood pressure.[70] In a pilot study involving 45 patients with intermittent claudication, ranolazine 1000 mg BID showed an increase in peak walking time in comparison to placebo. Although ranolazine did not improve the ankle brachial index at rest, patients with severe intermittent claudication had an approximately 40% increase in walking time than placebo, comparable to cilostazol. Although the sample size was small, it has led to further research.[71] The Supervised Treadmill Exercise and Ranolazine for Intermittent Claudication of Lower Extremities, a randomized trial, is being conducted to compare the efficacy of ranolazine with supervised treadmill exercise versus placebo and supervised treadmill exercise. The results are not yet published.[72]

Ranolazine in myotonia-congenita

Myotonia Congenita (MC) is a chloride channel mutation disorder characterized by muscle hyperexcitability. It adversely impacts quality of life by excessive muscle stiffness. Muscle stiffness improves with exercise, which is also called warm-up. A slow inactivation of sodium channel is responsible for the warm-up phenomenon. Ranolazine promotes slow inactivation of sodium channel, which may offer therapeutic potential to these patients. In a mouse model, ranolazine improved muscle functioning compared to mexiletine without major side effects.[73]

In a recent pilot study involving 13 MC patients, ranolazine showed improvement in terms of clinical and electromyography (EMG) assessment of MC. Mexiletine may not be suitable for some patients because of gastrointestinal side effects. In this population, ranolazine may serve as an alternative.[69] Recently, a phase 2 trial is ongoing to evaluate the effect of ranolazine in MC, Paramyotonia Congenita, and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Patients with the above mentioned conditions will be randomized to receive either ranolazine 500 mg twice daily for 2 weeks followed by 1000 mg twice daily for another 2 weeks versus placebo. Primary outcomes are quality of life measurements for health and neuromuscular disease, and EMG to assess for changes in muscle potentials and performance. It is a phase 2 trial to mainly assess the safety profile of the drug in these neuromuscular conditions.[73]

Ranolazine in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Preclinical data

Ranolazine was studied in transgenic mice carrying troponin T mutations responsible for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). At therapeutic plasma concentrations, ranolazine prevented the development of HCM phenotype in these genotype positive mice. It reduced interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular fibrosis, left atrial enlargement, diastolic dysfunction, left ventricular hypercontractility, and improved left ventricular volume.[74] An electromechanical study of human cardiomyocytes harvested from septal myectomy specimens in HCM showed electrophysiological remodelling with enhanced Ca-calmodulin kinase II dependent signaling and phosphorylation leading to abnormal calcium handling.[75] This causes calcium overload, arrhythmogenesis, and diastolic dysfunction, which can be reversed in vitro by ranolazine.[76] The negative inotropic action of ranolazine may decrease dynamic LV outflow tract obstruction in HCM. Ranolazine has also been shown to decrease refractory angina in HCM.[77]


   Conclusion and Future Directions Top


By preventing calcium overloading and reducing diastolic tension in cardiomyocytes, ranolazine is an important adjunct in the management of stable angina pectoris. Ranolazine may be particularly attractive in diabetic patients with angina since it leads to a reduction in glucose levels. Experimental studies showed promising role in the treatment of postcardioversion and post-CABG AF, heart failure, PH, peripheral arterial disease, MC, HCM, and in prevention of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Task Force Members, Montalescot G, Sechtem U, Achenbach S, Andreotti F, Arden C, et al. 2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease: The Task Force on the Management of Stable Coronary Artery Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 2013;34:2949-3003.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, Berra K, Blankenship JC, Dallas AP, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation 2012;126:e354-471.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Banerjee K, Ghosh RK, Kamatam S, Banerjee A, Gupta A. Role of ranolazine in cardiovascular disease and diabetes: Exploring beyond angina. Int J Cardiol 2017;227:556-64.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gilead Sciences, RANEXA®–Prescribing Information; 2016. Available from: http://www.gilead.com/~/media/Files/pdfs/medicines/cardiovascular/ranexa/ranexa_pi.ashx. [Last accessed on 2017 Jul 10].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Jerling M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of ranolazine. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006;45:469-91.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Hale SL, Shryock JC, Belardinelli L, Sweeney M, Kloner RA. Late sodium current inhibition as a new cardioprotective approach. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2008;44:954-67.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Dhalla AK, Yang M, Ning Y, Kahlig KM, Krause M, Rajamani S, et al. Blockade of Na+channels in pancreatic α-cells has antidiabetic effects. Diabetes 2014;63:3545-56.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ning Y, Zhen W, Fu Z, Jiang J, Liu D, Belardinelli L, et al. Ranolazine increases β-cell survival and improves glucose homeostasis in low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011;337:50-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Reddy BM, Weintraub HS, Schwartzbard AZ. Ranolazine: A new approach to treating an old problem. Tex Heart Inst J 2010;37:641-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Chaitman BR, Skettino SL, Parker JO, Hanley P, Meluzin J, Kuch J, et al. Anti-ischemic effects and long-term survival during ranolazine monotherapy in patients with chronic severe angina. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:1375-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chaitman BR, Pepine CJ, Parker JO, Skopal J, Chumakova G, Kuch J, et al. Effects of ranolazine with atenolol, amlodipine, or diltiazem on exercise tolerance and angina frequency in patients with severe chronic angina: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:309-16.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Stone PH, Gratsiansky NA, Blokhin A, Huang IZ, Meng L; ERICA Investigators. Antianginal efficacy of ranolazine when added to treatment with amlodipine: The ERICA (Efficacy of Ranolazine in Chronic Angina) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:566-75.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Antzelevitch C, Belardinelli L, Zygmunt AC, Burashnikov A, Di Diego JM, Fish JM, et al. Electrophysiological effects of ranolazine, a novel antianginal agent with antiarrhythmic properties. Circulation 2004;110:904-10.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Moreno JD, Clancy CE. Pathophysiology of the cardiac late na current and its potential as a drug target. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2012;52:608-19.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Caves RE, Cheng H, Choisy SC, Gadeberg HC, Bryant SM, Hancox JC, et al. Atrial-ventricular differences in rabbit cardiac voltage-gated Na+currents: Basis for atrial-selective block by ranolazine. Heart Rhythm 2017;14:1657-64.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Zou D, Geng N, Chen Y, Ren L, Liu X, Wan J, et al. Ranolazine improves oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the atrium of acetylcholine-CaCl2 induced atrial fibrillation rats. Life Sci 2016;156:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Huang SY, Chen YC, Kao YH, Hsieh MH, Lin YK, Chung CC, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 23 dysregulates late sodium current and calcium homeostasis with enhanced arrhythmogenesis in pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes. Oncotarget 2016;7:69231-42.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Carstensen H, Kjær L, Haugaard MM, Flethøj M, Hesselkilde EZ, Kanters JK, et al. Antiarrhythmic effects of combining dofetilide and ranolazine in a model of acutely induced atrial fibrillation in horses. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018;71:26-35.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Frommeyer G, Sterneberg M, Dechering DG, Kochhäuser S, Bögeholz N, Fehr M, et al. Comparison of vernakalant and ranolazine in atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2017;18:663-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Verrier RL, Silva AF, Bonatti R, Batatinha JA, Nearing BD, Liu G, et al. Combined actions of ivabradine and ranolazine reduce ventricular rate during atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2015;26:329-35.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Burashnikov A, Di Diego JM, Barajas-Martínez H, Hu D, Cordeiro JM, Moise NS, et al. Ranolazine effectively suppresses atrial fibrillation in the setting of heart failure. Circ Heart Fail 2014;7:627-33.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Alves Bento AS, Bacic D, Saran Carneiro J, Nearing BD, Fuller H, Justo FA, et al. Selective late INa inhibition by GS-458967 exerts parallel suppression of catecholamine-induced hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia and T-wave alternans in an intact porcine model. Heart Rhythm 2015;12:2508-14.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Kloner RA, Dow JS, Bhandari A. First direct comparison of the late sodium current blocker ranolazine to established antiarrhythmic agents in an ischemia/reperfusion model. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2011;16:192-6.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Wu L, Shryock JC, Song Y, Li Y, Antzelevitch C, Belardinelli L, et al. Antiarrhythmic effects of ranolazine in a guinea pig in vitro model of long-QT syndrome. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004;310:599-605.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Parikh A, Mantravadi R, Kozhevnikov D, Roche MA, Ye Y, Owen LJ, et al. Ranolazine stabilizes cardiac ryanodine receptors: A novel mechanism for the suppression of early afterdepolarization and torsades de pointes in long QT type 2. Heart Rhythm 2012;9:953-60.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Scirica BM, Morrow DA, Hod H, Murphy SA, Belardinelli L, Hedgepeth CM, et al. Effect of ranolazine, an antianginal agent with novel electrophysiological properties, on the incidence of arrhythmias in patients with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: Results from the metabolic efficiency with ranolazine for less ischemia in non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 36 (MERLIN-TIMI 36) randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2007;116:1647-52.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Weisz G, Farzaneh-Far R, Ben-Yehuda O, Debruyne B, Montalescot G, Lerman A, et al. Use of ranolazine in patients with incomplete revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention: Design and rationale of the Ranolazine for Incomplete Vessel Revascularization Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (RIVER-PCI) trial. Am Heart J 2013;166:953-9.e3.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Leftheriotis D, Flevari P, Theodorakis G, Rigopoulos A, Ikonomidis I, Panou F, et al. The effects of ranolazine on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease: A preliminary observational study. J Atr Fibrillation 2014;6:940.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
De Ferrari GM, Maier LS, Mont L, Schwartz PJ, Simonis G, Leschke M, et al. Ranolazine in the treatment of atrial fibrillation: Results of the dose-ranging RAFFAELLO (Ranolazine in Atrial Fibrillation Following an ELectricaL CardiOversion) study. Heart Rhythm 2015;12:872-8.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Koskinas KC, Fragakis N, Katritsis D, Skeberis V, Vassilikos V. Ranolazine enhances the efficacy of amiodarone for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Europace 2014;16:973-9.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Tsanaxidis N, Aidonidis I, Hatziefthimiou A, Daskalopoulou SS, Giamouzis G, Triposkiadis F, et al. Ranolazine added to amiodarone facilitates earlier conversion of atrial fibrillation compared to amiodarone-only therapy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2017;40:372-8.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
De Vecchis R, Ariano C, Giasi A, Cioppa C. Antiarrhythmic effects of ranolazine used both alone for prevention of atrial fibrillation and as an add-on to intravenous amiodarone for its pharmacological cardioversion: A meta-analysis. Minerva Cardioangiol 2018;66:349-59.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Guerra F, Romandini A, Barbarossa A, Belardinelli L, Capucci A. Ranolazine for rhythm control in atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2017;227:284-91.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Reiffel JA, Camm AJ, Belardinelli L, Zeng D, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, Olmsted A, et al. The HARMONY trial: Combined ranolazine and dronedarone in the management of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: Mechanistic and therapeutic synergism. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2015;8:1048-56.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Hartmann N, Mason FE, Braun I, Pabel S, Voigt N, Schotola H, et al. The combined effects of ranolazine and dronedarone on human atrial and ventricular electrophysiology. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2016;94:95-106.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Simopoulos V, Tagarakis GI, Daskalopoulou SS, Daskalopoulos ME, Lenos A, Chryssagis K, et al. Ranolazine enhances the antiarrhythmic activity of amiodarone by accelerating conversion of new-onset atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Angiology 2014;65:294-7.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Miles RH, Passman R, Murdock DK. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of ranolazine versus amiodarone for preventing atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Am J Cardiol 2011;108:673-6.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Burashnikov A, Antzelevitch C. Ranolazine versus amiodarone for prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Future Cardiol 2011;7:733-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Tagarakis GI, Aidonidis I, Daskalopoulou SS, Simopoulos V, Liouras V, Daskalopoulos ME, et al. Effect of ranolazine in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary revascularization surgery. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2013;11:988-91.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Hammond DA, Smotherman C, Jankowski CA, Tan S, Osian O, Kraemer D, et al. Short-course of ranolazine prevents postoperative atrial fibrillation following coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgeries. Clin Res Cardiol 2015;104:410-7.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Ranolazine Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Trial (RAID). Available from: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01215253. [Last accessed on 2017 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Moss AJ, Zareba W, Schwarz KQ, Rosero S, McNitt S, Robinson JL, et al. Ranolazine shortens repolarization in patients with sustained inward sodium current due to type-3 long-QT syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2008;19:1289-93.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Calderón-Sánchez EM, Domínguez-Rodríguez A, López-Haldón J, Jiménez-Navarro MF, Gómez AM, Smani T, et al. Cardioprotective effect of ranolazine in the process of ischemia-reperfusion in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2016;69:45-53.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Hale SL, Kloner RA. Ranolazine treatment for myocardial infarction? Effects on the development of necrosis, left ventricular function and arrhythmias in experimental models. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2014;28:469-75.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Weisz G, Généreux P, Iñiguez A, Zurakowski A, Shechter M, Alexander KP, et al. Ranolazine in patients with incomplete revascularisation after percutaneous coronary intervention (RIVER-PCI): A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2016;387:136-45.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Alexander KP, Weisz G, Prather K, James S, Mark DB, Anstrom KJ, et al. Effects of ranolazine on angina and quality of life after percutaneous coronary intervention with incomplete revascularization: Results from the ranolazine for incomplete vessel revascularization (RIVER-PCI) trial. Circulation 2016;133:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Aistrup GL, Gupta DK, Kelly JE, O'Toole MJ, Nahhas A, Chirayil N, et al. Inhibition of the late sodium current slows t-tubule disruption during the progression of hypertensive heart disease in the rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2013;305:H1068-79.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Lee JC, Kim KC, Choe SY, Hong YM. Reduced immunoreactivities of B-type natriuretic peptide in pulmonary arterial hypertension rats after ranolazine treatment. Anat Cell Biol 2016;49:7-14.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Rocchetti M, Sala L, Rizzetto R, Staszewsky LI, Alemanni M, Zambelli V, et al. Ranolazine prevents INaL enhancement and blunts myocardial remodelling in a model of pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 2014;104:37-48.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Gomberg-Maitland M, Schilz R, Mediratta A, Addetia K, Coslet S, Thomeas V, et al. Phase I safety study of ranolazine in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pulm Circ 2015;5:691-700.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Khan SS, Cuttica MJ, Beussink-Nelson L, Kozyleva A, Sanchez C, Mkrdichian H, et al. Effects of ranolazine on exercise capacity, right ventricular indices, and hemodynamic characteristics in pulmonary arterial hypertension: A pilot study. Pulm Circ 2015;5:547-56.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
De Angelis A, Cappetta D, Piegari E, Rinaldi B, Ciuffreda LP, Esposito G, et al. Long-term administration of ranolazine attenuates diastolic dysfunction and adverse myocardial remodeling in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Int J Cardiol 2016;217:69-79.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.
Hayashida W, van Eyll C, Rousseau MF, Pouleur H. Effects of ranolazine on left ventricular regional diastolic function in patients with ischemic heart disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994;8:741-7.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Maier LS, Layug B, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, Belardinelli L, Lee S, Sander J, et al. RAnoLazIne for the treatment of diastolic heart failure in patients with preserved ejection fraction: The RALI-DHF proof-of-concept study. JACC Heart Fail 2013;1:115-22.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Maier LS. Ranolazine in Diastolic Heart Failure (RALI-DHF); 2010. Available from: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01163734. [Last accessed on 2017 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.
Jacobshagen C, Belardinelli L, Hasenfuss G, Maier LS. Ranolazine for the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: Background, aims, and design of the RALI-DHF study. Clin Cardiol 2011;34:426-32.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.
Murray GL, Colombo J. Ranolazine preserves and improves left ventricular ejection fraction and autonomic measures when added to guideline-driven therapy in chronic heart failure. Heart Int 2014;9:66-73.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.
Venkataraman R, Chen J, Garcia EV, Belardinelli L, Hage FG, Heo J, et al. Effect of ranolazine on left ventricular dyssynchrony in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2012;110:1440-5.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.
Jaswal JS, Keung W, Wang W, Ussher JR, Lopaschuk GD. Targeting fatty acid and carbohydrate oxidation – A novel therapeutic intervention in the ischemic and failing heart. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011;1813:1333-50.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.
Corradi F, Paolini L, De Caterina R. Ranolazine in the prevention of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Pharmacol Res 2014;79:88-102.  Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.
Cappetta D, Esposito G, Coppini R, Piegari E, Russo R, Ciuffreda LP, et al. Effects of ranolazine in a model of doxorubicin-induced left ventricle diastolic dysfunction. Br J Pharmacol 2017;174:3696-712.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.
Minotti G. Pharmacology at work for cardio-oncology: Ranolazine to treat early cardiotoxicity induced by antitumor drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013;346:343-9.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.
Morrow DA, Scirica BM, Chaitman BR, McGuire DK, Murphy SA, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, et al. Evaluation of the glycometabolic effects of ranolazine in patients with and without diabetes mellitus in the MERLIN-TIMI 36 randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2009;119:2032-9.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.
Chisholm JW, Goldfine AB, Dhalla AK, Braunwald E, Morrow DA, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, et al. Effect of ranolazine on A1C and glucose levels in hyperglycemic patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Diabetes Care 2010;33:1163-8.  Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.
Eckel RH, Henry RR, Yue P, Dhalla A, Wong P, Jochelson P, et al. Effect of ranolazine monotherapy on glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2015;38:1189-96.  Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.
Pettus J, McNabb B, Eckel RH, Skyler JS, Dhalla A, Guan S, et al. Effect of ranolazine on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with either glimepiride or metformin. Diabetes Obes Metab 2016;18:463-74.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.
Caminiti G, Fossati C, Battaglia D, Massaro R, Rosano G, Volterrani M, et al. Ranolazine improves insulin resistance in non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. A pilot study. Int J Cardiol 2016;219:127-9.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.
Kosiborod M, Arnold SV, Spertus JA, McGuire DK, Li Y, Yue P, et al. Evaluation of ranolazine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic stable angina: Results from the TERISA randomized clinical trial (Type 2 diabetes evaluation of ranolazine in subjects with chronic stable angina). J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:2038-45.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.
Arnold WD, Kline D, Sanderson A, Hawash AA, Bartlett A, Novak KR, et al. Open-label trial of ranolazine for the treatment of myotonia congenita. Neurology 2017;89:710-3.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.
Nieminen T, Tavares CA, Pegler JR, Belardinelli L, Verrier RL. Ranolazine injection into coronary or femoral arteries exerts marked, transient regional vasodilation without systemic hypotension in an intact porcine model. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2011;4:481-7.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.
Ma A, Garland WT, Smith WB, Skettino S, Navarro MT, Chan AQ, et al. A pilot study of ranolazine in patients with intermittent claudication. Int Angiol 2006;25:361-9.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.
Supervised Treadmill Exercise and Ranolazine for Intermittent Claudication of Lower Extremities (STERILE, NCT00914316). Available from: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00914316. [Last accessed on 2017 Oct 29].  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.
Novak KR, Norman J, Mitchell JR, Pinter MJ, Rich MM. Sodium channel slow inactivation as a therapeutic target for myotonia congenita. Ann Neurol 2015;77:320-32.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.
Coppini R, Mazzoni L, Ferrantini C, Gentile F, Pioner JM, Laurino A, et al. Ranolazine prevents phenotype development in a mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circ Heart Fail 2017;10. pii: e003565.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.
Coppini R, Ferrantini C, Yao L, Fan P, Del Lungo M, Stillitano F, et al. Late sodium current inhibition reverses electromechanical dysfunction in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2013;127:575-84.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.
Coppini R, Ferrantini C, Mazzoni L, Sartiani L, Olivotto I, Poggesi C, et al. Regulation of intracellular Na(+) in health and disease: Pathophysiological mechanisms and implications for treatment. Glob Cardiol Sci Pract 2013;2013:222-42.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.
Tomberli B, Girolami F, Coppini R, Ferrantini C, Rossi A, Cecchi F, et al. Management of refractory symptoms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with restrictive pathophysiology: Novel perspectives for ranolazine. G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2012;13:297-303.  Back to cited text no. 77
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Pharmacology and...
    Role as an Antia...
   Role Beyond Angina
    Conclusion and F...
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1380    
    Printed65    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded60    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal