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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| January-March  | Volume 14 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 13, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Lipoprotein (a) levels in relation to severity of coronary artery disease in north Indian patients
Fauzia Ashfaq, Pravin Kumar Goel, Rishi Sethi, Mohd Idrees Khan, Wahid Ali, Mohd Zafar Idris
January-March 2013, 14(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107114  PMID:23580919
Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established risk marker of coronary artery disease which is independent from other risk factors. Objective: The aim was to address the association between Lp (a) and CAD risk in North Indians. To evaluate whether high levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is a predictor of risk and is related to the severity of CAD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 360 patients presenting with chest pain. Coronary angiography revealed CAD in 270 patients and 90 patients without CAD. Lipoprotein (a) level, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed. Results: Lipoprotein (a) 21.0 mg/dL is associated with the presence of coronary lesions ( P = 0.0001). A highly significant difference in Lp (a) levels was observed between normal coronaries vs. single-vessel disease, double-and triple-vessel disease ( P < 0.0001). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly raised in CAD group compared to normal coronary. Conclusion: Multivariate analysis found that Lp (a) was considered an independent predictor for severity of CAD and Lp (a) levels 21.0 mg/dL are associated with severe patterns of coronary atherosclerosis.
  9 4,607 289
CASE REPORTS
Congenital complete absence of pericardium masquerading as pulmonary embolism
Saad Tariq, Sultan Mahmood, Samuel Madeira, Ethan Tarasov
January-March 2013, 14(1):29-32
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107118  PMID:23580923
Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare cardiac condition, which can be either isolated or associated with other cardiac and extracardiac anomalies. There are six different types, depending on the severity of the involvement. Most of the patients with this defect are asymptomatic, especially the ones with complete absence of the pericardium. However, some patients are symptomatic, reporting symptoms that include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea, and syncope. Diagnosis is established by the characteristic features on chest X-ray, echocardiogram, chest computed tomography (CT), and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imging (MRI). We present here a case of a 23 year-old-male, who presented to our hospital with complaints of pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnea, of a two-week duration. He was physically active and his past history was otherwise insignificant. His chest CT with contrast was interpreted as showing evidence of multiple emboli, predominantly in the left lung, and he was started on a heparin and warfarin therapy. A repeat chest CT with contrast three weeks later showed no significant change from the previous CT scan. Both scans showed that the heart was abnormally rotated to the left side of the chest. An echocardiogram raised the suspicion of congenital absence of the pericardium, with a posteriorly displaced heart. In retrospect, motion artifact on the left lung, attributed to cardiac pulsations and the lack of pericardium, resulted in a CT chest appearance, mimicking findings of pulmonary embolism. The misdiagnosis of pulmonary embolism was attributed to the artifact caused by excessive cardiac motion artifact on the chest CT scan. In non-gated CT angiograms, excessive motion causes an artifact that blurs the pulmonary vessels, reminiscent of a 'seagull' or a 'boomerang'. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon, as well as the characteristic radiological features of this congenital anomaly, to enable them to make a correct diagnosis.
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HISTORY OF MEDICINE
The Air of History Part III
Rachel Hajar
January-March 2013, 14(1):43-46
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107125  PMID:23580929
  2 2,995 137
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Periodontitis as risk factor for acute myocardial infarction: A case control study
Sujal M Parkar, Gunjan N Modi, Jalak Jani
January-March 2013, 14(1):5-11
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107113  PMID:23580918
Objectives: To assess the periodontal status among the patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate whether periodontitis is a risk factor for AMI or not. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 60 subjects, 30 subjects in each AMI group and control group was conducted. Details of risk factors like age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption were obtained through a personal interview. Medical history was retrieved from the medical file. The oral hygiene status was assessed by using a simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and the periodontal status was assessed by community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) as per World Health Organization (WHO) methodology 1997. Chi-square test was used to analyze qualitative data whereas t-test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for quantitative data. Multiple regression model was applied to check the risk factors for AMI. Results: The mean OHI-S score for case and control group was 3.98 ± 0.70 and 3.11 ± 0.68, respectively, which was statistically highly significant ( P < 0.001). There was high severity of periodontitis (for both in terms of CPI and LOA) in the case group as compared with control group, that was found to be statistically highly significant ( P < 0.001). There was a significant result for OHI-S and LOA score with odds ratio of 0.13 and 0.79, respectively, when the multiple logistic regression model was applied. Conclusion: The results of the present study show evidence that those patients who have experienced myocardial infarction exhibit poor periodontal conditions in comparison to healthy subjects and suggest an association between chronic oral infections and myocardial infarction.
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A PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS
Incidental detection of asymptomatic intrapericardial calcified hydatid cyst
Nagaraja Moorthy, Sudeep Kumar, Hira Lal, Pravin K Goel
January-March 2013, 14(1):36-37
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107120  PMID:23580925
  1 1,347 126
EDITORIAL
Arab or Islamic medicine?
HA Hajar Albinali
January-March 2013, 14(1):41-42
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107124  PMID:23580928
  1 1,682 134
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Snoring and risk for obstructive sleep apnea among nigerians with heart failure: Prevalence and clinical correlates
Adeseye A Akintunde
January-March 2013, 14(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107115  PMID:23580920
Background: Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing nations like Nigeria. Sleep apnea and snoring has recently been recognized to be a cardiovascular risk factor. Sleep apnea is yet to be well studied among Africans with heart failure. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Nigerians with stable heart failure. Materials and Methods: We studied 103 subjects that included 62 patients with heart failure and 41 control subjects. Demographic parameters and clinical examination were performed on the participants. The Berlin score and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were administered for each participant. Echocardiography was done on all participants. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 17.0. Results: Snoring was reported in 48.4% of subjects with heart failure compared to 22.0% of control subjects ( P < 0.005). High risk for obstructive sleep apnea using the Berlin score was documented in 51.6% of heart failure subjects compared to 7.31% of controls. Excessive daytime somnolence occurred more in heart failure patients (51.6% vs. 9.8%, P < 0.05). Snorers tended to be older and were more likely to be obese than nonsnorers. Systolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher among heart failure subjects with snoring than those without snoring (131.9 ± 19.2 vs. 119.2 ± 15.7 and 6.0 ± 0.8 vs. 5.4 ± 2.7, P < 0.005). Conclusion: Heart failure seems to be associated with snoring and a high risk for obstructive sleep apnea among Africans with heart failure. Assessment for sleep disordered breathing should be incorporated into their routine clinical workup.
  1 2,039 137
Heart rate variability and its correlation with pulmonary function test of smokers
Joshil Kumar Behera, Sushma Sood, Naresh Kumar, Kirti Sharma, Reshmi Mishra, Prasanta Saha Roy
January-March 2013, 14(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107116  PMID:23580921
Context: Though many studies have been conducted on the effect of chronic smoking on pulmonary function test (PFT) and heart rate variability (HRV), no study has found a correlation between the pulmonary function test and heart rate variability parameters so far. Aim: The aim was to study if there was a correlation, if any, between PFT and HRV. Settings and Design: Thirty male subjects who were chronic smokers of at least 10 pack years and another 30 nonsmoking healthy males were included in the study and were matched for age, height, weight, and body surface area. Materials and Methods: PFT and HRV were performed on these subjects and a correlation was statistically derived. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman's correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of HRV and PFT. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used subsequently. Results: HF and LF showed correlation coefficients of 0.378 and-0.383 with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respectively. It was found that only FEV 1 /FVC was having a statistically significant regression coefficient with HF the R-value was found to be 0.425 while with other parameters, it was not significant. Conclusion: We conclude that smoking affects all the parameters of PFT and HRV. Since there is a correlation between PFT parameters (PEFR and FEV 1 ) and HRV parameter (LF and HF), this can help us in predicting cardiac morbidity in chronic smokers. So HRV should be included as a routine test along with PFT in chronic smokers for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement.
  1 2,525 226
ART AND MEDICINE
Dance and Healing
Rachel Hajar
January-March 2013, 14(1):38-38
PMID:23580926
  - 1,116 94
The cultural diversity of healing: Meaning, metaphor, and mechanism
Laurence J Kirmayer
January-March 2013, 14(1):39-40
  - 1,825 69
CASE REPORTS
A previously undescribed complex coronary artery anomaly
Salvatore Geraci, Filippo Geraci, Carmelo Grasso, Federica Di Martino, Corrado Tamburino
January-March 2013, 14(1):33-35
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107119  PMID:23580924
Coronary artery anomalies are uncommon disorders. According to the literature, ≈1% of the general population is affected by a coronary artery abnormality. Coronary artery anomalies are often not associated with clinical signs, symptoms, or complications; nevertheless, they can be associated with congenital heart diseases and lead to sudden death. However, these anomalies are more often discovered as incidental findings at the time of coronary angiography or autopsy. The clinical relevance of coronary artery anomalies is closely related to the functional ability to provide adequate blood supply to the myocardial tissue. We describe a complex left coronary artery anomaly, not previously reported in medical literature, involving origin, course, and distribution of this vessel.
  - 1,662 120
Peripartum cardiomyopathy coexistent with human immunodeficiency virus: A substantial obstetric jeopardy
Debasmita Mandal, Chaitalli Dattaray, Mousumi Dutta, Gouranga Sarkar, Pooja Sinha
January-March 2013, 14(1):26-28
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107117  PMID:23580922
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of pregnancy-related heart failure, which affects a woman during the last months of pregnancy or first months of parturition. Its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. Coexistence of PPCM with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been scarcely analyzed. A low CD4 count is proposed to be one of the predictors of dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV. Here, a pregnant woman with HIV presented with signs of congestive heart failure for the first time during her last trimester. Echocardiography revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction of 34% which proved the diagnosis of PPCM. She underwent cesarean section for impending previous scar rupture. Her status deteriorated subsequently in spite of all efforts and she succumbed due to ventricular tachycardia. This case necessitates an awareness regarding coexistence of HIV with PPCM and dreaded clinical sequences. Patients suffering from HIV should be treated well and their CD4 count should be improved before conception to avoid such complications in pregnancy.
  - 2,287 118
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The management of elderly diabetic Saudi patients with acute coronary syndrome
Abdulhalim J Kinsara, Adel M Hasanin
January-March 2013, 14(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.107112  PMID:23580917
Background and Purpose: Elderly Diabetics (DM) who present with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) constitute a very high risk group. We present the pattern of management of elderly patients (>65 years) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in comparison to the international data extrapolated from a Multicenter International Diabetes-Acute Coronary Syndromes (MIDAS). Materials and Methods: DM patients presenting with unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) at the time of admission to the hospital were collectively enrolled into the MIDAS study. A total of 3624 patients were enrolled; 142 were from Saudi Arabia. Primary clinical outcome measure was in-hospital death or MI. We present the data of KSA based on the age of the patients in comparison to the international registry. Results: Baseline characteristics were typical for DM presenting with ACS, with mean age of 67 ± 15 years, males, constituted 36% of patients while 94% of patients were DM type 2. There was marked underutilization of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in those aged over 65 years with a decrease from 22.5 to 12.7 in KSA (Odds ratio 0.56) patients. The percentage of early coronary angiography approach in KSA was less than that of the international data with further reduction of the percentage in Saudi elderly population (from 49.3% to 25.5% with Odds ratio 0.52). Conclusions: In elderly Saudi diabetic patients admitted with ACS, there is tendency for underutilization of GP IIb/IIIa, early coronary angiography, and revascularization that needs to be addressed.
  - 1,997 166
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