|Year : 2004 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 55-65
Transthoracic doppler echocardiography: Noninvasive diagnostic window for coronary flow reserve assessment
Pawel Petkow Dimitrow
2nd Department of Cardiology CMUJ, ul. Kopernika 17 31-501 Kraków, Poland
|Date of Web Publication||22-Jun-2010|
Pawel Petkow Dimitrow
2nd Department of Cardiology CMUJ, ul. Kopernika 17 31-501 Kraków
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
This review focuses on transthoracic Doppler echocardiography as noninvasive method used to assess coronary flow reserve (CFR) in a wide spectrum of clinical settings. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is rapidly gaining appreciation as popular tool to measure CFR both in stenosed and normal epicardial coronary arteries (predominantly in left anterior descending coronary artery). Post-stenotic CFR measurement is helpful in: functional assessment of moderate stenosis, detection of significant or critical stenosis, monitoring of restenosis after revascularization. In the absence of stenosis in the epicardial coronary artery, decreased CFR enable to detect impaired microvascular vasodilatation in: reperfused myocardial infarct, arterial hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, syndrome X, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In these diseases, noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography allows for serial CFR evaluations to explore the effect of various pharmacological therapies.
Keywords: coronary flow reserve ? transthoracic Doppler echocardiography
|How to cite this article:|
Dimitrow PP. Transthoracic doppler echocardiography: Noninvasive diagnostic window for coronary flow reserve assessment. Heart Views 2004;5:55-65
|How to cite this URL:|
Dimitrow PP. Transthoracic doppler echocardiography: Noninvasive diagnostic window for coronary flow reserve assessment. Heart Views [serial online] 2004 [cited 2021 May 11];5:55-65. Available from: https://www.heartviews.org/text.asp?2004/5/2/55/64569
| Introduction|| |
Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is defined as a ratio of maximal (stimulated) to baseline (resting) coronary blood flow. CFR evaluation is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of coronary circulation. CFR measurement is used both to assess epicardial coronary stenoses and to examine the integrity of microvascular circulation. An appreciation of coronary physiology is an integral part of clinical decision-making for cardiologists treating patients with coronary artery disease. In the absence of stenosis in epicardial coronary artery, the CFR may be decreased when coronary microvascular circulation is compromised by arterial hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, syndrome X, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or other diseases  .
| 1. Methods to assess CFR|| |
Several methods have been established for measuring CFR [Table 1]. However, these methods are either invasive (intracoronary Doppler flow wire), highly expensive and scarcely available (Positron Emission Tomography) or semi-invasive and scarcely feasible (transesophageal Doppler), thus their clinical use is limited. In addition, PET and intracoronary Doppler flow wire involve radiation exposure, with inherent risk, environmental impact and biohazard connected with use of ionizing testing  .
Because of the clinical importance of CFR, there is a need for a simple, non-invasive, repeatable and inexpensive tool capable of this functional evaluation. The value of absolute coronary blood flow may be substituted by the value of coronary blood flow velocity ,,, measurable by Doppler technique not only invasively, but also using a non-invasive approach [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3]. The present review discusses the assessment of CFR using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, a technique which has been validated in a series of clinical studies ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, . Recently, the usefulness of transthoracic Doppler echocaardiography to assess CFR has been reported in various clinical settings in a large general referral population. The method provides reliable measurements of CFR in the distal or middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), using pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography under the guidance of color Doppler flow mapping.
The development of the transthoracic imaging technique (exploring various transducer beam orientations) extended the possibilities of imaging blood flow in the circumflex coronary artery  and right coronary artery (RCA) ,, . CFR in the RCA can be assessed by transthoracic Doppler by measuring coronary flow velocity in the proximal RCA and its distal branch, i.e., the right posterior descending artery. Most relevant RCA stenoses are located proximal to the crux cordis, hence the assessment of CFR in the right posterior descending coronary artery usually provide post-stenotic values.
The feasibility of CFR measurement with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is improved by contrast enhancement combined with second-harmonic imaging technique. Consequently, in some reports the feasibility of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to assess CFR achieved 100% , .
| 2. Clinical Application|| |
There are two most relevant clinical applications of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography to assess reduced CFR: stenosis of epicardial LAD and impairment of coronary microvascular vasodilatation.
Coronary angiography provides a limited insight into the physiological significance of coronary stenoses. Therefore, the CFR is a useful parameter in several important clinical settings, summarized in [Table 2].
2.1a. Functional assessment of intermediate stenosis (40-70%)
Understanding the functional impact of stenosis is important for clinical decision making. One example is whether to refer or defer patients with intermediate stenosis for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). The treatment of patients with moderate stenoses is challenging, and CFR measured distal to the stenosis precisely defines the hemodynamic significance of stenosis.
In studies using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, CFR <2 is associated with stress-induced ischemia , and reduced CFR is considered as a manifestation of functionally important stenosis even if coronary angiography reveals intermediate severity ,,, . In contrast, patients with intermediate stenosis but with adequate CFR value, PTCA can be safely deferred. The measurement of CFR by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography provides data equivalent to those obtained by thallium-201 scintigraphy for physiologic estimation of the severity of LAD stenosis , .
2.1b. Detection of critical stenosis ( >90% )
Using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, it is possible to detect severe LAD stenosis >90%. The CFR <1, which suggests coronary steal may be a predictor of critical coronary stenosis  . Coronary steal is defined as a decrease of CFR to a certain vascular region in favor of another area during maximal coronary vasodilatation, that is, CFR <1.
2.1c. Combined assessment of coronary flow and wall motion
The CFR finding is additive and complementary to the information provided by 2DE on regional wall motion abnormalities. Combined assessment of CFR and wall motion was performed with dipyridamole echocardiographic stress test. According to data from Rigo et al.  , coronary flow and contractile function of myocardium can be complementary in terms of predicting underlying angiographic anatomy because abnormal wall motion can include coronary artery disease, and negative CFR can exclude it. In this study, the sensitivity for detecting LAD disease was 74% for 2-dimensional echocardiography and 81% for CFR <1.9; specificity was 91% for 2-dimensional echocardiography and 84% for CFR. Accuracy was 86% for 2-dimensional echocardiography and 83.5% for CFR. When 2-dimensional echocardiography and CFR criteria were combined, sensitivity increased to 93%, with 80.6% specificity.
The recent, ground-breaking findings of Rigo et al  have already been confirmed by other studies from Argentina  and Japan  . The studies consistently show that CFR when assessed simultaneously with regional wall motion during dipyridamole stress-echocardiography, increase the sensitivity of the test, particularly in patients who are receiving beta-blockers or in patients with single vessel LAD disease, i.e., patients who are more likely to have false negative tests.
2.1d. Monitoring the changes of CFR in the early, post-PTCA period to detect artery occlusion, microvascular stunning
Intracoronary Doppler has been introduced to optimize the results of PTCA ,, but it has shown a surprisingly high rate of impaired CFR after balloon angioplasty or stenting, even in the absence of any residual angiographic stenosis ,, . This phenomenon may be explained by the two following theories. First, PTCA may induce microvascular stunning due to microembolization, thrombogenicity (by thrombin release) and vasoconstriction (by endothelin release). Alternatively, temporary reactive hyperemia, a state with high post-ischemic baseline flow velocity, masks normal reserve. Invasive CFR is obtained after multiple balloon inflations, injection of contrast agent and administration of vasoactive drugs that may produce immediate post-procedural vasomotion instability. For these reasons, the measurement of CFR should be delayed several days after PTCA. At this time, the influence of pharmacological, metabolic, humoral or myogenic factors affecting coronary flow autoregulation is negligible, possibly explaining the lower rate of post-procedural impaired CFR in a recent study using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography  . The noninvasive, repeatable, inexpensive and accessible transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is especially helpful in this clinical setting. Early reoclussion of the coronary artery is another complication after PTCA detectable by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography.
2.1e. Serial CFR examination after PTCA to predict restenosis
Serial CFR examination after PTCA may be also feasible in mid- and long-term follow-up to monitor restenosis , . The decrease of CFR <2 during follow-up was proposed as a sensitive and specific predictor of restenosis , . This method may be complementary to exercise test, or may be its substitute if patients are unable to perform adequate exercise test.
Besides CFR measurements distally to the stenosis, other methods have been been developed to detect restenosis after PTCA. In some patients, direct imaging of the stenosis/restenosis site in the LAD is possible if a sufficiently long portion of the LAD is visible , . The (re)-stenotic site is identified as localized color aliasing corresponding to local flow acceleration with turbulences. It has been proposed to quantify the severity of restenosis by measuring the increase of coronary blood flow velocity (ratio of pre-stenotic to stenotic velocities) , .
2.1f. Postinfarction CFR assessment
There are several recent reports concerning the value of CFR measured by thransthoracic echocardiography after transthoracically after reperfusion in acute anterior myocardial infarction , . In the study of Ueno et al.  the decreased CFR <1.5 was identified to predict an increase in left ventricular volume (remodeling) after myocardial infarct reperfusion. A significant negative correlation was found between CFR and progression of left ventricular dilatation at 6-month follow-up. In the study of Colonna et al  it was shown that preconditioning due to preinfarction angina had a protective role on microvascular function as demonstrated by CFR preservation (>2.5) after myocardial infarction.
2.1g. Assessment of coronary graft patency
Another application of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is the assessment of the patency of internal mammary artery and saphenous vein to coronary artery grafts , . In the largest study  the identification rate for mammary artery grafts was 100%, for saphenous vein grafts to LAD coronary artery 91%, for the vein grafts to the right coronary artery 96% and for the vein grafts to circumflex artery 90%  . CFR <1,9 had 100% sensitivity, 98% specificity for mammary artery graft stenosis  . CFR <1,6 had 91% sensitivity, 87% specificity for significant vein graft stenosis  .
2.2. Impairment of coronary microvascular vasodilatation
The second application of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is the detection of reduced CFR due to impaired microvascular vasodilatation despite angiographically normal epicardial coronary arteries. It is well known that several diseases such as hypertrophy (due to aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension), diabetes mellitus, smoking, menopause cause structural and/or functional abnormalities in the microcirculation. The invasive Doppler measurement of CFR is not routinely performed in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteries. Therefore, the extent of such microvascular disease appears to be underestimated. Accordingly, recent studies , . have demonstrated that up to 50% of the patients with chest pain and normal or near normal coronary angiograms have reduced CFR. Noninvasive assessment of CFR using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography has been performed in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  , aortic stenosis  and smokers (both active and passive)  . In these studies CFR was measured using adenosine (standard vasodilator to test endothelium-independent vasodilatation). In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the vasomotor response to stressors testing endothelium-dependent vasomotion was studied ,,,,, . Cold pressor test , , handgrip , and pacing  was used as stressing stimuli.
The noninvasive approach provides an opportunity to assess asymptomatic patients , and to recruit healthy subjects to form adequate control groups ,,,, , which is impossible in an invasive study. In addition, the effect of physiological hypertrophy on CFR can be measurable by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography  , which could prove useful in differentiating athlete's hypertrophic heart - in which CFR is in normal to supranormal range - from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in which CFR is markedly attenuated.
Furthermore, noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography allows for serial CFR evaluations to explore the effect of various pharmacological therapies  or to assess the effect of aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis ,,, .
The clinical applications of CFR measurement are summarized in [Table 3].
| 3. Choosing the appropriate stimuli|| |
There are two pharmacological vasodilators: adenosine and dipyridamole used to recruit CFR. Both agents are compared in [Table 4]. Both adenosine and dipyridamole have an advantage over exercise and dobutamine, which are submaximal stimuli for coronary flow reserve and are more technically demanding for imaging of CFR , .
| 4. Limitations of Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography|| |
4.1. Absolute volumetric flow versus flow velocity measurement of CFR
Although the left anterior descending artery was detected with combined Doppler and two-dimensional imaging, the images were not of sufficient clarity to allow for accurate measurement of the vessel diameter in a substantial portion of the examined subjects. Without estimation of the coronary artery diameter we can measure changes only in coronary blood flow velocity, but not changes in coronary blood flow. Therefore CFR assessment by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is limited to measurements of coronary blood flow velocity in majority of studies. However, it has been shown that CFR measured using both parameters is closely correlated ,,, . Moreover, even in large invasive studies DEBATE  and DESTINI , the CFR derived from changes only in the velocity of coronary blood flow was accepted instead of the absolute coronary blood flow, which is measurable during invasive studies.
Regarding the accuracy of transthoracic Doppler measurement of CBFV, its comparison with intracoronary measurement provided a highly satisfying correlation between non-invasive and invasive measurements , .
4.2. Contrast enhancement versus non-contrast study: learning curve and cost-effectiveness
Another limitation is the feasibility of transthoracic coronary blood flow velocity measurement. In assessing coronary flow in the LAD, the learning curve effect was seen in most centers in which contrast agents were not used. In studies by Shapiro and coworkers, which were initiated in the beginning of the 90s, the capacity of detecting coronary flow increased from 34% to 77% ,,, . Voci and coworkers were able to increase the capacity of coronary blood flow imaging from 76%52 to 96%  . This result is fully comparable with the results of studies using contrast agents. In personal studies the capacity of detection increased with time and experience from 71% to 87% ,, . Only Hozumi et al.  achieved a very high feasibility of coronary flow imaging in their first study, i.e. 94%. This limitation may be minimized by using echo-contrast agents enhancing Doppler signal intensity  , which are however expensive. With regard to cost-effectiveness balance, it was calculated  that using 90-s noncontrast/adenosine vasodilator approach, the cost of the test was 14 times less expense than the 7-min contrast-enhanced approach. As regard vasodilator agents, dipyridamole is cheaper than adenosine and therefore the best cost-effectiveness profile is achieved with dipyridamole stress without contrast enhancement.
4.3. Pitfalls and trouble-shooting
CFR must be measured distally to stenosis, because erroneous CFR assessment at stenosis site is underestimated due to increased baseline flow velocity. In addition, the flow in the LAD branches could be erroneously interpreted as flow in LAD main trunk.
| Conclusions|| |
Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is rapidly gaining appreciation as popular tool to measure CFR both in stenosed and normal epicardial coronary arteries (predominantly in left anterior descending coronary artery). Post-stenotic CFR measurement is helpful in: functional assessment of moderate stenosis, detection of significant or critical stenosis, monitoring of restenosis after revascularization. In the absence of stenosis in the epicardial coronary artery, decreased CFR enable to detect impaired microvascular vasodilatation in: reperfused myocardial infarct, arterial hypertension with or without left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, syndrome X, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In these diseases, noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography allows for serial CFR evaluations to explore the effect of various pharmacological therapies.
| References|| |
|1.||Dimitrow PP: Coronary flow reserve-measurement and application: focus on transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Boston/ Dordrecht/London: Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002. |
Picano E: Stress echocardiography: a historical perspective. Am J Med. 2003; 114:126-130. |
Radvan J, Marwick TH, Williams MJ, Camici PG: Evaluation of the extent and timing of the coronary hyperemic response to dipyridamole: a study with transesophageal echocardiography and positron emission tomography with oxygen 15 water. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1995; 8:864 -873. |
|4.||Reis SE, Holubkov R, Lee JS, Sharaf B, Reichek N, Rogers WJ, Walsh EG, Fuisz AR, Kerensky R, Detre KM, Sopko G, Pepine CJ: Coronary flow velocity response to adenosine characterizes coronary microvascular function in women with chest pain and no obstructive coronary disease. Results from the pilot phase of the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33:1469-1475. |
|5.||Saraste M, Koskenvuo J, Knuuti J, Toikka J, Laine H, Niemi P, Sakuma H, Hartiala J: Coronary flow reserve: measurement with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is reproducible and comparable with positron emission tomography. Clin Physiol. 2001, 21:114-122. |
Wilson RF, Laughlin DE, Ackell PH: Transluminal subselective measurement of coronary artery flow velocity and vasodilator reserve in man. Circulation. 1985; 72:82-92. |
Caiati C, Montaldo C, Zedda N, Montisci R, Ruscazio M, Lai G, Cadeddu M, Meloni L, Iliceto S: Validation of a new noninvasive method (contrast-enhanced transthoracic second harmonic echo Doppler) for the evaluation of coronary flow reserve: comparison with intracoronary Doppler flow wire. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999, 34:1193-1200. |
Caiati C, Zedda N, Montaldo C, Montisci R, Iliceto S: Contrast-enhanced transthoracic second harmonic echo Doppler with adenosine: a noninvasive, rapid and effective method for coronary flow reserve assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 34:122-130. |
Caiati C, Montaldo C, Zedda N, Bina A, Iliceto S: New noninvasive method for coronary flow reserve assessment: contrast-enhanced transthoracic second harmonic echo Doppler. Circulation. 1999; 99:771-778. |
Crowley JJ, Shapiro LM: Transthoracic echocardiographic measurement of coronary blood flow and reserve. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1997; 10:337-343. |
Daimon M, Watanabe H, Yamagishi H, Muro T, Akioka K, Hirata K, Takeuchi K, Yoshikawa J: Physiologic assessment of coronary artery stenosis by coronary flow reserve measurements with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography: comparison with exercise thallium-201 single positon emission computed tomography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 37:1310-1315. |
De Simone L, Caso P, Severino S: Noninvasive assessment of left and right internal mammary artery graft patency with high frequency transthoracic echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999; 12:841-849. |
Hildick-Smith DJ, Johnson PJ, Wisbey CR, Winter EM, Shapiro LM: Coronary flow reserve is supranormal in endurance athletes: an adenosine transthoracic echocardiographic study. Heart. 2000; 84:383-389. |
Hozumi T, Yoshida K, Akasaka T, Asami Y, Ogata Y, Takagi T, Kaji S, Kawamoto T, Ueda Y, Morioka S: Noninvasive assessment of coronary flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve in the left anterior descending coronary artery by Doppler echocardiography: comparison with invasive technique. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 32:1251-1259. |
Hozumi T, Yoshida K, Ogata Y, Akasaka T, Asami Y, Takagi T, Morioka S: Noninvasive assessment of significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis by coronary flow velocity reserve with transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography. Circulation. 1998; 97:1557-1562. |
Lambertz H, Tries HP, Stein T, Lethen H: Noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic signal-enhanced Doppler echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999; 12:186-195. |
Otsuka R, Watanabe H, Hirata K, Tokai K, Muro T, Yoshiyama M, Takeuchi K: Acute effects of passive smoking on the coronary circulation in healthy young adults. JAMA. 2001; 286:436-441. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Nizankowski R, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: Effect of verapamil on systolic and diastolic coronary blood flow velocity in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart. 2000; 83:262-266. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Grodecki J, Malecka B, Lelakowski J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: Verapamil improves the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. International J Cardiol. 2002; 83:239-247. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Nizankowski R, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: Verapamil improves the response of coronary vasomotion to cold pressor test in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999; 13:259-264. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Nizankowski R, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: Comparison of the effect of verapamil and propranolol on response of coronary vasomotion to cold pressor test in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2000; 14:643-650. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Nizankowski R, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: The effect of verapamil on response of coronary vasomotory to handgrip exercise in symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2001; 15:331-337. |
Pizzuto F, Voci P, Mariano E, Puddu PE, Sardella G, Nigri A: Assessment of flow velocity reserve by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography and venous adenosine infusion before and after left anterior descending coronary artery stenting. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 38:155-162. |
Tries HP, Lambertz H, Lethen H: Transthoracic echocardiographic visualization of coronary artery blood flow and assessment of coronary flow reserve in the right coronary artery: a first report of 3 patients. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002; 15:739-742. |
Ueno Y, Nakamura Y, Takashima H, Kinoshita M, Soma A: Noninvasive assessment of coronary flow velocity and coronary flow velocity reserve in the right coronary artery by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography: comparison with intracoronary Doppler guidewire. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2002; 15:1074-1079. |
Voci P, Pizzuto F, Mariano E, Puddu PE, Chiavari PA, Romeo F: Measurement of coronary flow reserve in the anterior and posterior descending coronary arteries by transthoracic Doppler ultrasound. Am J Cardiol. 2002; 90:988-991. |
Caiati C, Cioglia G, Montaldo C, Zedda N, Rubini G, Pirisi R, Iliceto S: Correlation of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging with absolute coronary flow reserve by a new noninvasive Doppler method in patients with stenoses of the left anterior descending coronary artery. A preliminary report. Cardiologia. 1999; 44:809-816. |
Rigo F, Richieri M, Pasanisi E, Cutaia V, Zanella C, Della VP, Di Pede F, Raviele A, Picano E: Usefulness of coronary flow reserve over regional wall motion when added to dual-imaging dipyridamole echocardiography. Am J Cardiol. 2003; 91:269-273. |
Lowenstein J, Tiano C, Maquez G, Presti C, Quiroz C: Simultaneous Analysis of Wall Motion and Coronary Flow Reserve of the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery by Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography During Dipyridamole Stress. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003; 16:735-744. |
Nohtomi Y, Takeuchi M, Nagasawa K, Miyata K, Kuwata K: Simultaneous Assessment of Wall Motion and Coronary Flow Velocity in the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery during Dipyridamole Stress Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2003; 16:457-463. |
Di Mario C, Moses JW, Anderson TJ, Bonan R, Muramatsu T, Jain AC, Suarez dL, Cho SY, Kern M, Meredith IT, Cohen D, Moussa I, Colombo A: Randomized comparison of elective stent implantation and coronary balloon angioplasty guided by online quantitative angiography and intracoronary Doppler. DESTINI Study Group (Doppler Endpoint STenting INternational Investigation). Circulation. 2000; 102:2938-2944. |
Dupouy P, Pelle G, Garot P, Kern MJ, Kane G, Woscoboinick J, Aptecar E, Belarbi A, Pernes JM, Dubois Rande JL, Teiger E: Physiologically guided angioplasty in support to a provisional stenting strategy: immediate and six-month outcome. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2000; 49:369-375. |
Serruys PW, Di Mario C, Piek J, Schroeder E, Vrints C, Probst P, deBruyne B, Hanet C, Fleck E, Haude M, Verna E, Voudris V, Geschwind H, Emanuelsson H, Muhlberger V, Danzi G, Peels HO, Ford AJ Jr, Boersma E: Prognostic value of intracoronary flow velocity and diameter stenosis in assessing the stenosis in assessing the short- and long-term outcomes of coronary balloon angioplasty; the DEBATE study. Circulation. 1997; 96:3369-3377. |
|34.||Kern MJ, Puri S, Bach RG: Abnormal coronary flow velocity reserve after coronary stenting in patients: role of relative coronary reserve to assess potential mechanisms. Circulation. 1999; 100:2491-2498. |
van Liebergen RA, Piek J, Koch KT, de Winter RJ, Lie KI: Immediate and long-term effect of balloon angioplasty or stent implantation on the absolute and relative coronary blood flow velocity reserve. Circulation. 1998; 98:2133-2140. |
van Liebergen RA, Piek J, Koch KT: Hyperemic coronary flow after optimized intravascular ultrasound-guided balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 34:1899-1906. |
Pizzuto F, Voci P, Mariano E, Puddu PE, Chiavari PA, Romeo F: Noninvasive coronary flow reserve assessed by transthoracic coronary Doppler ultrasound in patients with left anterior descending coronary artery stents. Am J Cardiol. 2003; 91:522-526. |
Ruscazio M, Montisci R, Colonna P, Caiati C, Chen L, Lai G, Cadeddu M, Pirisi R, Iliceto S: Detection of coronary restenosis after coronary angioplasty by contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler assessment of coronary flow velocity reserve. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40:896-903. |
Hozumi T, Yoshida K, Akasaka T, Asami Y, Kanzaki Y, Ueda Y, Yamamuro A, Takagi T, Yoshikawa J: Value of acceleration flow and the prestenotic to stenotic coronary flow velocity ratio by transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography in noninvasive diagnosis of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 35:164-168. |
Saraste M, Koskenvuo JW, Mikkola J, Pelttari L, Toikka JO, Hartiala JJ: Technical achievement: transthoracic Doppler echocardiography can be used to detect LAD restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Clin Physiol. 2000; 20:428-433. |
Ueno Y, Nakamura Y, Kinoshita M, Fujita T, Sakamoto T, Okamura H: Can coronary flow velocity reserve determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography predict the recovery of regional left ventricular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction? Heart. 2002; 88:137-141. |
Colonna P, Cadeddu C, Montisci R, Ruscazio M, Selem AH, Chen L, Onnis E, Meloni L, Iliceto S: Reduced microvascular and myocardial damage in patients with acute myocardial infarction and preinfarction angina. Am Heart J. 2002; 144:796-803. |
Chirillo F, Bruni A, Balestra G, Cavallini C, Olivari Z, Thomas JD: Assessment of internal mammary artery and saphenous vein graft patency and flow reserve using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Heart. 2001; 86:424-431. |
Hasdai D, Holmes DR Jr, Higano ST, Burnett JC Jr, Lerman A: Prevalence of coronary blood flow reserve abnormalities among patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease and chest pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 1998; 73:1133-1140. |
Asami Y, Yoshida K, Hozumi T, Akasaka T, Takagi T, Kaji S: Assessment of coronary flow reserve in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography. J Cardiol. 1998; 32:247-252. |
Hildick-Smith DJ, Shapiro LM: Coronary flow reserve improves after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: an adenosine transthoracic echocardiography study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000; 36:1889-1896. |
Dimitrow PP, Krzanowski M, Zdzienicka A, Dembiρska-Kieζ A, Szczeklik A, Dubiel JS: Elevated endothelin concentrations are associated with reduced coronary vasomotor response to exercise in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Abstract). Eur Heart J. 2001; 22 (Abstract Supplement): 408. |
Takeuchi M, Miyazaki C, Yoshitani H, Sakamoto K, Yoshikawa J: Assessment of coronary flow velocity with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography during dobutamine stress echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001; 38:117-123. |
Serruys PW, de Bruyne B, Carlier S, Sousa JE, Piek J, Muramatsu T, Vrints C, Probst P, Seabra-Gomes R, Simpson I, Voudris V, Gurne O, Pijls N, Belardi J, van Es GA, Boersma E, Morel MA, van Hout B: Randomized comparison of primary stenting and provisional balloon angioplasty guided by flow velocity measurement. Doppler Endpoints Balloon Angioplasty Trial Europe (DEBATE) II Study Group. Circulation. 2000; 102:2930-2937. |
Crowley JJ, Dardas PS, Harcombe AA, Shapiro LM: Transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic analysis of phasic coronary blood flow velocity in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart. 1997; 77:558-563. |
Kenny A, Shapiro LM: Transthoracic high-frequency two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler and color flow mapping to determine anatomy and blood flow patterns in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery. Am J Cardiol. 1992; 69:1265-1268. |
|52.||Voci P, Testa G, Plaustro G: Imaging of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery by transthoracic color-Doppler echocardiography. Am J Cardiol. 1998; 81:74G-78G. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]