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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 245-250

The effect of glycemic control on cardiac outcomes in Saudi diabetic patients who underwent coronary angiogram

1 King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center, College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed Ali Balghith
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that causes impaired insulin secretion or cellular dysfunction. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) indicates the long-term level of glucose. Diabetes can lead to cardiovascular complications such as acute coronary syndrome , which might require coronary intervention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of glycemic control measured by HbA1c levels on cardiac complications in Saudi diabetic patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methodology: It was a cohort retrospective study conducted at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center with a total sample size of 379 patients. The charts of all those diabetic patients were reviewed and their HbA1c level, type of intervention were compared to determine their effect on cardiac outcomes and complications. Inclusion criteria involved the age group 50–70 years within follow-up period of 3 years. Any patient known to have renal failure, liver dysfunction, type one diabetes, and cancer were excluded. The HbA1c level was divided into two groups (<7.5%, ≥7.5%). Results: Total sample size was 379, and the mean age was (60.33 ± 5.98) with male being (66.5%). HbA1c levels at admission were (mean 9.15 ± 2.03), whereas the mean after 3 years was (8.629 ± 1.518). The uncontrolled group was more likely to have PCI (n = 302), in comparison to the controlled group (n = 77) with a P value of 0.04. However, the controlled group was more likely to undergo medical treatment P value of 0.001. Patients with uncontrolled Hba1c after the intervention had a higher readmission rate with a P value of 0.018. Conclusions: Patients with an elevated level of HbA1c were more likely to be managed with PCI. Furthermore, they are at a higher risk of multiple readmissions. Patients who had CABG were at a lower risk of cardiac complications. Further studies are required in our population to consider different approaches of diabetes control for preventing adverse outcomes.

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