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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2021
Volume 22 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-84

Online since Thursday, April 22, 2021

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CARDIOVASCULAR NEWS  

Cardiovascular News p. 1
Uma Velupandian
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_7_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Out-of-Hospital cardiac arrest in the young: A 23-year middle Eastern experience p. 3
Bassim Albizreh, Abdulrahman Arabi, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Ashfaq Patel, Rajvir Singh, Hajar Albinali
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_1_20  
Background: Worldwide, limited data are available about young patients (≤40 years) who present with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in younger patients (≤40 years) versus older patients (>40 years) with OHCA. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a registry of patients hospitalized with OHCA over a 23-year period (1991–2013) in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. Results: Of 1146 patients admitted to our institution with OHCA, 159 patients (13.9%) were 40 years of age or younger. Compared to the older group (>40 years), younger group patients were more likely to be males (84.9% vs. 71.5%; P= 0.001) and to be smokers (27.7% vs. 19.7%; P= 0.012). They are less likely to have diabetes (6.3% vs. 49.2%; P= 0.001), hypertension (8.3% vs. 49.9%; P= 0.001), prior myocardial infarction (3.1% vs. 23.4%; P= 0.001), or chronic renal disease (0% vs. 8.5%; P= 0.001). There was no significant difference in ejection fraction, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (13.2% vs. 15.7%; P= 0.41), utilization of inotropes (36.5% vs. 44%; P= 0.08), or utilization of reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic: 16.4% vs. 12.2%, P= 0.14, and percutaneous intervention: 6.3% vs. 5.3%, P= 0.60, for the younger and older groups, respectively); on the other hand, younger patients were more likely to receive antiarrhythmic medications (33.3% vs. 21.2%; P= 0.001). Inhospital mortality was lower in the younger group (52.1% vs. 68.3%; P= 0.001) even after adjustment for baseline variables. Conclusion: In the Middle East it is not uncommon to present with OHCA in young age. These patients are predominantly males, more likely to present with arrhythmia and they have a better survival rate.
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Complications of white-coat hypertension compared to a normotensive and hypertensive population Highly accessed article p. 8
Ziad Abdullah Taher, Waleed W Khayyat, Marwan M Balubaid, Mohamed Y Tashkandi, Saeed M Alamoudi, Abdulhalim Jamal Kinsara
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_64_20  
Background: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that white-coat hypertension (WCH) are associated with several risks and complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the adverse effects of WCH compared with hypertensive and normotensive patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted over five years. Blood pressure (BP) data was collected from both clinic visits and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) reports. Epidemiological data and complications, cardiac and noncardiac, were also recorded. Results: In total, 286 participants who were followed up for at least three years were included. The sample was divided into 99 normotensive patients (as a control group), 94 patients with clinically diagnosed hypertension (HTN), and 93 patients with WCH. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was the most noted complication in the WCH group with a relative risk of 9.58 (1.23–74.16) (P = 0.008). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) was significantly correlated with a relative risk of 2.06 (0.52–13.38). No significant correlation was noted with noncardiac complications. Both HTN and WCH groups showed a significant association with blood pressure variability (BPV). WCH was associated with an increased BPV in ambulatory daytime systolic measurements (P = 0.031) and a unique increase in diastolic measurement variability in office BP measurements (P = 0.020). Conclusion: WCH should be managed as HTN. WCH is associated with cardiac complications, particularly IHD, specifically in patients 55 years and older. WCH was significantly associated with a higher BPV in both ABPM and office-based measurements.
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Outcomes of unprotected left main percutaneous coronary intervention: A single-centre experience p. 13
Nooraldaem Yousif, Babu Thevan, Suddharsan Subbramaniyam, Mohamed Alkhayat, Shereen Alshaikh, Sadananda Shivappa, Haitham Amin, Mary Tareif, Fuad Abdulqader, Husam A Noor
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_135_20  
Introduction: When the baseline anatomical syntax score-I (SxSI) is more than or equal to 33, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of unprotected left main (UPLM) is discouraged and considered as high-risk of adverse cardiac events. We designed this study to compare the outcomes of UPLM-PCI between the low to intermediate-syntax score (SxSIlow/int.) group (defined as SxSI <33) and the high-syntax score (SxSIhigh) group (defined as SxSI more than or equal 33) with a subanalysis to explore the predictive role of intravascular images (IVI). Methods: The study is a retrospective observational analysis in a prospective cohort. The prospectively gathered data of consecutive patients, who were enrolled from January 2018 to December 2018, were analyzed at 1-year regarding the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). An independent committee calculated the SxSI and reviewed all the events. Results: Baseline data of 2144 patients were considered for analysis. 1245 underwent PCI and 32 (2.57%) had PCI of UPLM; of these, 24 (75%) were in SxSIlow/int. group and 8 (25%) in SxSIhigh group. The mean SxSI was 20.3 ± 6.5 and 37.1 ± 4.9 for SxSIlow/int. and SxSIhigh groups, respectively. Compared with patients in the SxSIlow/int., patients in SxSIhigh group had a greater syntax score-II (<0.0001), which reflects the expected 4-year mortality after PCI by combining the SxSI and clinical variables. Interestingly, despite the fact that the proportion of subjects who sustained MACCE was almost three times more among the SxSIhigh compared to their SxSIlow/int. counterparts [1 (12.5%) vs. 1 (4.2%), P= 0.444], this difference was not statistically significant. It was noted that a higher proportion of patients in whom intravascular imaging (IVI) was not used to guide PCI sustained MACCE compared with that in whom IVI was utilized (2 [50%] vs. [0%], P= 0.012). There is a strong, negative, statistically significant association between the use of IVI and the occurrence of MAACE (Phi=-0.681), which reflects that the use of imaging is associated with significantly lower probability of developing MACCE. Conclusion: As demonstrated in this real-world cohort, PCI of UPLM provides excellent outcome at one year regardless of the initial anatomical syntax score. Furthermore, it appears that IVI utilization during the index PCI procedure of UPLM is a potent and independent predictor of MACCE.
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Cardiovascular manifestations and outcomes in patients admitted with severe COVID-19: Middle Eastern Country multicenter data p. 20
Fahad Alkindi, Khamis Alhashmi, Sunil Nadar, Salma Alharthi, Khalid Alsaidi, Tasneem Alrashdi, Shabib Alasmi, Feryal Khamis, Adil Algafri, Sultan Allawati, Muzna Alfarsi, Sathiya Murthi, Mujahid Albusaidi, Abdullah Balkhair, Hafidh Alhadi, Khalid Alrasadi, Maather Alabri, Maryam Alissai, Shihab Alkindi, Hilal Alsabti
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_224_20  
Objectives: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) -that can affect the cardiovascular system. The aim of our study was to assess the cardiovascular manifestations and its effect on the overall mortality among patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted in the intensive care units (ICU). Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study that included all adult patients admitted to the ICU with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in three major hospitals in Oman between March 1, 2020, and August 10, 2020. Results: A total of 541 patients (mean age of 50.57 ± 15.57 years; 401 [74.1%] male) were included in the study of which 452 (83.5%) were discharged and 89 (16.5%) died during hospitalization. Evidence of cardiac involvement was found in 185 (34.2%) patients, which included raised troponin (31.6%), arrhythmias (4.3%), myocardial infarctions (2.6%), or drop in ejection fraction (0.9%). High troponin of >100 ng/l was associated with higher mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 7.98; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.20–15.15); P< 0.001). Patients with any cardiovascular involvement also had a high risk of dying (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 4.6–16.5; P< 0.001). Conclusion: Almost a third of patients in our study had evidence of cardiovascular involvement which was mainly myocardial injury. This was associated with increased mortality.
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COVID-19 pandemic and volume of cardiac catheterization procedures in Jordan: Impact of strict lockdown p. 27
Imad A Alhaddad, Ramzi Tabbalat, Ayman Hammoudeh
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_215_20  
Introduction: Global surge of COVID-19 forced most countries to impose variable measures to curb the disease. Jordan imposed one of the strictest lockdowns from mid-March through April 2020. Hospitals deferred elective cardiac catheterization procedures and most of those performed during that period were limited to urgent presentations. Our purpose is to evaluate the impact of strict lockdown on cardiac catheterization procedural volume. Methods and Results: We collected data about the numbers of all coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures performed in 5 tertiary care hospitals in Amman, Jordan, from January through June 2020. We compared the volume of procedures performed in April 2020 (the strict lockdown month) to the corresponding period of prior year (April 2019) and to volumes performed prior to the lockdown in January–February 2020. There was a 64% decline in CA and PCI volumes in April 2020 compared to April 2019. Comparing number of procedures performed in April 2020 to those in January–February 2020, there was 59% decline in CA and a 60% decline in PCI volumes. Following partial lifting of lockdown in May–June 2020, procedural volumes increased gradually. Conclusion: Strict COVID-19-related lockdown in Jordan was associated with drastic declines in cardiac catheterization procedural volumes.
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Administration of protamine through radial arterial access: A prospective observational study p. 30
Priyanka Goyal, Sandeep Joshi, Monish S Raut
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_55_17  
Protamine is mainly used to reverse the anticoagulant effect of heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Unfortunately, it is associated with adverse clinical reactions ranging from minor cardiopulmonary instability to fatal cardiovascular collapse. In the present prospective observational study, effects of protamine administration through peripheral intra-arterial route, i.e., radial artery, were investigated.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Quality assurance and improvement project in echocardiography laboratory: The pivotal importance of organizational and managerial processes p. 35
Antoine Kossaify
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_112_20  
Echocardiography plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of cardiovascular conditions. Echocardiography use is progressively increasing nowadays, and this is correlated to the evolving echo indications, to the relatively new available echocardiography modes (tissue Doppler imaging, speckle tracking imaging, three-dimensional mode, etc.) and modalities (transthoracic, transesophageal, and intracardiac) along with the various available clinical approaches (point of care echo, portable echo, etc.). Quality assurance in echocardiography is correlated to appropriate use criteria, adequate equipment, standardization of performance and reporting, along with timely storage and archiving. Quality improvement plan must target strategic planning, with metrics and timeline for assessment and re-assessment of results. Improvement project aims to ensure and enhance conformity with appropriate use criteria and standardization, timely completion of exams and reports, detection of discrepancies, and continuous improvement of knowledge and skills. Strategic planning is essential in this context in order to develop organizational and managerial processes, with regular auditing for a highly professional and advanced level of echocardiography, while ensuring teamwork and standards of ethical values.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Successful surgical embolectomy for a rapidly deteriorating patient with pulmonary embolism and hemorrhagic stroke p. 45
Mohamad Salim Mohamad Kousay Nasri, Mohamed Salah Abdelghani, Cornelia S Carr, Mohd Lateef Wani, Mohammed Al-Hijji
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_179_20  
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening condition. High-risk PE is defined as pulmonary embolism with either hemodynamic collapse, persistent hypotension, and/or organ hypoperfusion. The overall mortality rate associated with high-risk PE remains at approximately 30%. Intermediate–high risk PE is a new term introduced to identify hemodynamically stable PE patients with evidence of right ventricular dysfunction. Thrombolytics therapy is the first choice for treatment of high-risk PE with hemodynamic instability; however, in a patient who failed thrombolytics or have contraindication to thrombolytics, thrombus removal either with open surgical or catheter embolectomy is a good alternative. We report a case of a patient who presented with hemorrhagic stroke complicated by intermediate–high-risk PE that rapidly deteriorated before undergoing successful surgical embolectomy.
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Sepsis-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A clinical case p. 50
Kamla Al-Wahaibi, Yahya Al-Wahshi, Vaseeharan Lux Rajagopal, Amal Al-Sarhani
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_140_20  
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) was first initially reported in 1990 in Japan and has been increasingly recognized in clinical practice. It is characterized by transient regional left ventricular dysfunction without evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease, often precipitated by emotional and physical stressors. Although TCM does occur in young women and men, it is most commonly seen in postmenopausal women. Sepsis induced TCM is an infrequently encountered entity. We present a case of TCM in a middle age gentleman who presented with septic shock due to acute cholecystitis. Two days later, the patient developed clinical features of acute myocardial infarction. Echocardiography revealed hypokinesis of the left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed normal arteries without any obstruction. Diagnosis of sepsis induced TCM was finally made. The patient made a dramatic recovery and discharged home in stable condition. Follow-up echocardiography showed improvement in left ventricular systolic function.
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Radiation-induced pan-valvular involvement: A rare case report p. 54
Hardeep Kaur Grewal, Shyam Bisht, Manish Bansal
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_66_19  
Radiotherapy is an important treatment modality for various thoracic malignancies but is associated with long-term risk of radiation-associated valve disease (RAVD). We hereby report a case of a lady who had received radiotherapy 30 years back for carcinoma breast and was now found to be having clinically significant RAVD involving all the four cardiac valves. Simultaneous involvement of all the four valves in RAVD is extremely rare and has not been reported previously.
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Surgical removal of broken and inflated percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloon catheter: Role of transesophageal echocardiography p. 59
S Subash, MN Nandakumar, Siroraj Placid, Vijay Thomas Cherian, Shaji Palangadan
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_85_19  
An entrapment and breakage of coronary angioplasty catheter during coronary intervention is a rare but serious complication. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) catheter got entrapped and broken inside the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in a 58-year-old male patient. The whole length of the PTCA catheter was retrieved through an arteriotomy incision in LAD along with reversed saphenous vein graft to LAD, under cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. We discuss here the various percutaneous retrieval techniques and surgical management of entrapped broken PTCA catheter and also the role of transesophageal echocardiography intraoperatively.
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Hypotension, tachypnea, and stridor following radial PCI: Solving the conundrum p. 63
Anindya Ghosh, Krishnarpan Chatterjee, Roopali Khanna, Aditya Kapoor
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_149_20  
The radial artery route is being increasingly used by interventional cardiologists as a default access site for both diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures, and although rare, serious complications can occur. We herein report a potentially catastrophic complication of radial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the form of a large mediastinal and retro-left-atrial hematoma from possible subclavian artery injury with tracheal compression and stridor in a 60-year-old female presenting with anteroseptal myocardial infarction having undergone PCI of the left anterior descending artery through right radial access and then planned for a second stage PCI of the right coronary artery. The patient was managed conservatively with close hemodynamic and echocardiographic monitoring, inotrope support, and blood transfusions. Transradial PCI, despite having a better safety profile in terms of bleeding compared to transfemoral PCI, is not without complications. Manipulation of hydrophilic guidewires as well as diagnostic catheters while performing radial procedures can cause injury to conduit vessels, potentially leading to intrathoracic, axillary, and arm hematomas may remain undetectable in the cath lab, presenting late and can pose a diagnostic and management challenge. Decision to proceed toward repeat interventional/surgical/”wait and watch” strategy should be guided by the patient's clinical status and noninvasive imaging.
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Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of anterior tibial artery treated by thrombin injection p. 68
Salman Salahuddin, Sujith Janardhanan, KS Krishnakumar, Shafeeq Mattummal
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_177_20  
Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of limb arteries are relatively rare. A 70-year-old gentleman, with history of mechanical aortic valve implantation on warfarin, presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling in the right leg. He had sustained blunt injury to the leg, a week prior to presentation. On examination, the lateral compartment of the leg was swollen, ecchymotic, and tense. Distal pulses were well palpable. An ultrasound Doppler evaluation revealed a large intramuscular hematoma in the lateral compartment with a pseudoaneurysm of a muscular branch of the anterior tibial artery. An ultrasound-guided compression of the pseudoaneurysm was initially attempted for 24 hours, which failed in closing off the pseudoaneurysm. He was subsequently taken up for thrombin injection into the pseudoaneurysm, which resulted in instant thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm, with an uneventful clinical course thereafter. Thrombin injection is an effective and safe modality to treat pseudoaneurysms of limb arteries.
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Patent ductus arteriosus device closure in interrupted inferior vena cava: Challenges overcome and lessons learnt: A case series p. 71
Palanivel Rajan, Parag Barwad, Pankaj Aggarwal, Manoj Kumar Rohit
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_180_20  
Interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygous continuation provides technical challenge in many percutaneous cardiac interventions. They are performed via the femoral venous access route. We describe four such cases in whom, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure was done in interrupted IVC. All the four cases were done using the femoral route. Two cases were done via retrograde approach through femoral artery access, in which one was closed with a muscular VSD device and the other with a Gianturco coil. The introduction of newer closure devices helps in the retrograde approach. Two cases were done via anterograde approach through the femoral venous route, with a loop through the azygous vein. One child had transient bradycardia due to cardiac stretch which normalized after the device deployment and introducer system removal. Thus, we describe different femoral approaches in interrupted IVC patients for PDA closure, with the difficulties faced and the complications managed.
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A PICTURE IS WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS Top

Rescue angioplasty in subclavian artery after percutaneous closure device failure in an inadvertent misplacement of a central venous line p. 76
Mohsen Mohandes, Benet Gómez Moya, Mónica Fuertes, Cristina Moreno, Laura Fernández, Gil Bonet, Claudia Scardino
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_83_20  
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ART AND MEDICINE Top

Henna p. 79
Smitha Anilkumar
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_29_21  
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HISTORY OF MEDICINE Top

From “Heart and Reins” to clinical syndromes: Origin and evolution of cardio-renal disease p. 80
Amar M Salam, Alison S Carr
DOI:10.4103/HEARTVIEWS.HEARTVIEWS_210_20  
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